Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Types of school students based on the individualized risks of socio-psychological safety of the sports and educational environment

Elvira N. Gilemkhanova



The object of this paper is to define categories of students which differ by efficiency of interaction (adaptation) in "student-the sociocultural environment of school" system on the basis of assessment of the dominating risks of socio-psychological safety. The basis of this study is an Environmental Approach, which allowed us to develop ideas about the inextricable unity of external (contextual) and internal (subject) factors of the educational environment determining the socio-psychological safety of the school. Our central concept in the framework of this approach is the analysis of the efficiency of students’ interaction from a "student-the sociocultural environment of school" system. This concept formed the basis of the author's technique “Adolescence Socio-Cultural Safety Index”. Technique “Adolescence Socio-Cultural Safety Index” possesses the necessary psychometric characteristics that allow the use of the questionnaire to identify the risks of the student’s educational environment. The study involved 3,232 students in secondary education. Results: 5 types of students are revealed on the basis of cluster analysis. Each type is characterized by specifics of interaction within the "student-the sociocultural environment of school" system. Identification of type of the student opens an opportunity for individualization of educational process and realization of timely preventive measures for prevention of socio-psychological disadaptation of students. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the presentation one of the ways to solve the problem of the individualization of the educational process and the prevention of negative social phenomena in schools. Proposed method consists in differentiation of students according to the type of their dominating risk in the field of socio-psychological safety of the educational environment.


Socio-psychological safety; Socio-psychological vulnerability; Disintegration; Virtual autism; Sports and educational environment


Acosta, J., Chinman, M., Ebener, P., Malone, P.S., Phillips, A. & Wilks, A. (2018). Understanding the relationship between perceived school climate and bullying: A mediator analysis. J. Sch. Violence, 18, 200-215.

Andres, S. & Barrios, A. (2009). De la violencia a la convivencia en la escuela: El camino que muestran los estudios mas recientes. Revista Complutense de Educacion, 20, 205-229.

Barker, R.G. & Wright, H.F. (1968). Ecological Psychology: Concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cava, M. (2011). Familia, profesorado e iguales: Claves para el apoyo a las victimas de acoso escolar. Psychosoc. Interv, 20, 183-192.

Demaray, M.K. & Malecki, C.K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. Sch. Psychol. Rev., 32, 471-490.

DeVoe, J.F., Kaffenberger, S. (2005). Student Reports of Bullying: Results from the 2001 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington: US GPO.

Finkelhor, D. (2008). Childhood Victimization: Violence, Crime, and Abuse in the Lives of Young People. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gilemkhanova, E. (2017). The interrelation of predictors of the addictive behavior of students with the basic social and economic indicators of territories. Quid-Investigacion Ciencia Y Tecnologia, 28, 739-745.

Gilemkhanova, E. (2019). Technique "Index of sociocultural safety of the school student". MSU bulletin, Series 14. Psychology, 2, 164-183.

Katsakiori, P.G., Sakellaropoulos, G. & Manatakis, E. (2009). Towards an evaluation of accident investigation methods in terms of their alignment with accident causation models. Safety Science, 47(7), 1007-1015.

Kilmann, W.T. & Kilmann, R.H. (1976). Thomas-Kilmann conflict MODE instrument.

Lazarus, R.S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer Publishing Co.

Mitchell, K.J., Finkelhor, D, Wolak, J., Michele, L.Y, Turner, H (2011). Youth Internet Victimization in a Broader Victimization Context. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48, 128-134

Mwoma, T., Begi, N. & Murung, C. (2018). Safety and security in preschools: A challenge in informal settlements. Issues in Educational Research, 28(3), 720-736.

Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R.S., Ruan, W.J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094-2100.

Republic of Kenya. (2008). Safety standards manual for schools in Kenya. Ministry of Education. First edition April 2008. Retrieved from:

Robers, S., Kemp, J., Truman, J., & Snyder, T.D. (2013). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2012 (NCES 2013-036/NCJ 241446). Washington: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

Saltmarsh, S., Klopper, C. & Barr, J. (2009). Early childhood safety education: An overview of safety curriculum and pedagogy in outer metropolitan, regional and rural NSW. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(4) 31-36.

Sanchez I.M, Martinez R.G., Gonzalez D.G, Rodriguez J.A. (2019). School Bullying in Compulsory and Advanced Secondary Education. Determining Factors in its Intervention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(5), 750-763.

Schmidt, M.E. & Bagwell, C.L. (2007). The protective role of friendships in overtly and relationally victimized boys and girls. Merrill-Palmer Q, 53, 439-460.

Wormington, S.V., Anderson, K.G., Tomlinson, K.L., & Brown, S.A. (2012). Alcohol and other drug use in middle school: The interplay of gender, peer victimization, and supportive social relationships. Journal of Early Adolescence, 33, 610-634.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.