Towards Beijing 2022: Discussion on the growth in size of Paralympic Winter Games in terms of participating data from Örnsköldvik 1976 to PyeongChang 2018
Paralympic Winter Games (PWG) born in 1976. Across Games, media personnel has increased suggesting an increase in PWG size. However, the growth of PWG from Örnsköldsvik 1976 to PyeongChang 2018 in terms of participating data has not been discussed. This work aims to find if the growth in media coverage comes together with an increase in PWG size in terms of National Paralympic Committee, sports, medal events, and athletes. The presence of trend over PWG editions is evaluated with Mann-Kendall Trend Test and differences among sports and continents with Kruskal Wallis test. Showing a significant monotonic trend, the number of countries (p < .001, β = 0.81) and the number of participating athletes (p < .001, β = 7.40) seem to be good indicators of PWG. These two indicators are good descriptors of PWG size because related to sociocultural and political aspects. In contrast, number of medal events being related to many factors did not show statistically significant trend (p = .95); therefore, this indicator seems to be less appropriate to describe PWG size. If the whole history is considered, slow but significant changes in number of sports (p < .001, β = 0.08) suggest this indicator could be considered in describing Games size.
Brittain, I. (2017a). Diversity at the Paralympic Games. In The Paralympic Games explained (2nd ed., pp. 128–156). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203885567
Brittain, I. (2017b). International perspectives on Paralympic participation. In The Paralympic Games explained (2nd ed., pp. 157–197). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/978-0-203-88556-7.ch009
Brittain, I. (2017c). Media, Marketing, and disability sport. In The Paralympic Games explained (2nd ed., pp. 98–99). Routledge.
Chappelet, J.-L. (2002). From Lake Placid to Salt Lake City: The Challenging Growth of the Olympic Winter Games Since 1980. European Journal of Sport Science, 2(3), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390200072302
Connick, M. J., Beckman, E. M., Vanlandewijck, Y. C., Malone, L. A., Blomqvist, S., & Tweedy, S. M. (2017). Cluster analysis of novel isometric strength measures produces a valid and evidence-based classification structure for wheelchair track racing. Br J Sports Med, 52(17), 1123–1129. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097558
Development Assistance Committee. (2006). DAC List of ODA Recipients - As at 1 January 2006. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/documentupload/37954893.pdf
Development Assistance Committee. (2010). DAC List of ODA Recipients Effective for reporting on 2009 and 2010 flows. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/documentupload/43540882.pdf
Development Assistance Committee. (2015). DAC List of ODA Recipients Effective for reporting on 2014, 2015 and 2016 flows. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/documentupload/DAC_List_ODA_Recipients2014to2017_flows_En.pdf
Gold, J., & Gold, M. (2007). Access for all: The rise of the Paralympic Games. Journal of The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 127(3), 133–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1466424007077348
Guttmann, L. (1976). Textbook of sport for the disabled. St. Lucia, Australia: University of Queensland.
Hambrick, M. (2017). Sport communication research: A social network analysis. Sport Management Review, 20(2), 170–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2016.08.002
International Olympic Committee. (1986). Lillehammer1994. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.olympic.org/lillehammer-1994
International Paralympic Committee. (2007). IPC classification code and international standards. Retrieved November 26, 2018, from http://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/120201084329386_2008_2_Classification_Code6.pdf
International Paralympic Committee. (2012a). History of the Paralympic Movement. Retrieved from https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/120209103536284_2012_02_History%2Bof%2BParalympic%2BMovement.pdf
International Paralympic Committee. (2012b). Para-Snowboard Included in Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.paralympic.org/news/para-snowboard-included-sochi-2014-paralympic-winter-games
International Paralympic Committee. (2015a). IPC Athlete Classification Code. Retrieved from https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/170628102201673_2015_12_17%2BClassification%2BCode_FINAL2.pdf
International Paralympic Committee. (2015b). Strategic Plan 2015 to 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/150619133600866_2015_06+IPC+Strategic+Plan+2015-2018_Digital.pdf
International Paralympic Committee. (2016a). Explanatory guide to Paralympic Classification Paralympic winter sports. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/160211172359750_2016%2B02%2BWinter%2BExplanatory%2BGuide%2B.pdf
International Paralympic Committee. (2016b). Paralympic Games Results. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.paralympic.org/results/historical
International Paralympic Committee. (2017). Norway’s Lena Schroder’s big Para ice hockey dream. Retrieved from https://www.paralympic.org/news/norway-s-lena-schroder-s-big-para-ice-hockey-dream
International Paralympic Committee. (2018a). Basketball ID at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games. Retrieved from https://www.paralympic.org/sdms/hira/web/competition/sydney-2000/basketball-id
International Paralympic Committee. (2018b). Pyeongchang 2018 Paralympic Winter Games. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.paralympic.org/news/pyeongchang-2018-paralympics-be-biggest-yet
International Paralympic Committee. (2019). Beijing 2022 Paralympic medal programme announced. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.paralympic.org/news/beijing-2022-paralympic-medal-programme-announced
Lantz, E., & Marcellini, A. (2018). Sports games for people with intellectual disabilities. Institutional analysis of an unusual international configuration. Sport in Society, 21(4), 635–648. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2016.1273612
Lauff, J. (2011). Participation rates of developing countries in international disability sport: a summary and the importance of statistics for understanding and planning. Sport in Society, 14(9), 1280–1284. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2011.614784
Legg, D., & Steadward, R. (2011). The Paralympic Games and 60 years of change (1948-2008): unification and restructuring from a disability and medical model to sport-based competition. Sport in Society, 14(9), 1099–1115. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2011.614767
Mauerberg-DeCastro, E., Campbell, D., & Tavares, C. (2016). The global reality of the Paralympic Movement: Challenges and opportunities in disability sports. Motriz. Revista de Educacao Fisica, 22(3), 111–123. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1980-6574201600030001
Misener, L., & Darcy, S. (2014). Managing disability sport: From athletes with disabilities to inclusive organisational perspectives. Sport Management Review, 17(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2013.12.003
Müller, M. (2015). What makes an event a mega-event? Definitions and sizes. Leisure Studies, 34(6), 627–642. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2014.993333
Rosso, V., Gastaldi, L., Rapp, W., Lindinger, S., Vanlandewijck, Y. C., Äyrämö, S., & Linnamo, V. (2019). Balance perturbations as a measurement tool for trunk impairment in cross-country sit skiing. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36(1), 61–76. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2017-0161
Sen, P. K. (1968). Estimates of the Regression Coefficient Based on Kendall’s Tau. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 63(324), 1379–1389. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1968.10480934
Tweedy, S. M., & Vanlandewijck, Y. C. (2011). International Paralympic Committee position stand-background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(4), 259–269. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.065060
Vanlandewijck, Y. C., & Thompson, W. (2011). The Paralympic Athlete – Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science. Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Wilson, P., & Clayton, G. (2010). Sports and Disability. PM and R, 2(3), S46–S54.
Women’s Sports Foundation. (2010). Women in the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/2010_olympic_report.pdf
Women’s Sports Foundation. (2017). Women in the 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games: Preliminary Report Brief. Retrieved from https://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/research/article-and-report/recent-research/women-2018-olympic-paralympic-winter-games/
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.