Design of an experiment for the biomechanical and thermal analysis of athletes during prolonged running exercise
Biomechanics and thermoregulation of human running are key aspects playing an important role in the training of professional athletes. In the case of a prolonged exercise, as occurs during the marathon race, the intensity and duration of the exercise (in concert with environmental conditions) can affect the thermoregulatory response and the running mechanics. The aim of this study is the design of a novel experiment able to simultaneously capture information concerning the biomechanics of lower limbs and the surface temperature map of the whole body during a prolonged running exercise on treadmill. Kinematics quantities, such as linear and angular displacement, velocity and acceleration of relevant body markers are recorded by a video system, while surface temperature evolution on time is detected by an infrared thermal camera. A group of five amateur athletes, with long experience in long-distance running competitions, was involved in this study. Results for the sample group, in terms of kinematic (displacements and angles) and thermal (local and total-body skin temperatures) quantities, revealed features related to individual response to the effort. Even though the relatively little number of athletes does not permit to infer general conclusions, the combined mechanical and thermal experiment is deemed to be a useful tool for the investigation of endurance running characteristics.
Brown, A. M., Zifchock, R. A., & Hillstrom, H. J. (2014). The effects of limb dominance and fatigue on running biomechanics. Gait Posture. 39, 915-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.12.007
Cavanagh, P. R. (1987). The biomechanics of lower extremity action in distance running. Foot Ankle Int. 7, 197-217. https://doi.org/10.1177/107110078700700402
Chan-Roper, M., Hunter, I., Myrer, J. W., Eggett, D. L., & Seeley, M. K. (2012). Kinematic changes during a marathon for fast and slow runners. J. Sports Sci. Med. 11, 77–82.
Clark, R. P., Mullan, B. J., & Pugh, L. G. C. E. (1977). Skin temperature during running - A study using infra-red colour thermography. J. Physiol. 267, 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1977.sp011800
Crenna, F., Rossi, G. B., & Palazzo, A. (2015). Measurement of human movement under metrological controlled conditions. Acta IMEKO. 4, 48-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.21014/acta_imeko.v4i4.281
Crenna, F., Rossi, G. B., & Palazzo, A. (2018). Ankle moment measurement in biomechanics. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1065, 182005.
de Andrade Fernandes, A., dos Santos Amorim, P. R., Brito, C. J., Sillero-Quintana, M., & Marins, J. C. B. (2016). Regional skin temperature response to moderate aerobic exercise measured by infrared thermography. Asian J. Sports Med. 7, e29243.
Derrick, T. R, Dereu, D. & McLean, S. P. (2002). Impacts and kinematic adjustments during an exhaustive run. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc. 34, 998-1002. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200206000-00015
Fernández-Cuevas, I., Marins, J. C. B., Lastras, J. A., Carmona, P. M. G., Cano, S. P., García-Concepción, M. A., & Sillero-Quintana, M. (2015). Classification of factors influencing the use of infrared thermography in humans: A review. Infrared Phys. Technol. 71, 28−55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2015.02.007
Fields, K. B., Sykes, J. C., Walker, K. M., & Jackson, J. C. (2010). Prevention of running injuries. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 9, 176-82. https://doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181de7ec5
García-Pérez, J. A., Pérez-Soriano, P., Llana, S., Martínez-Nova, A. & Sánchez-Zuriaga, D. (2013). Effect of overground vs treadmill running on plantar pressure: Influence of fatigue. Gait Posture. 38, 923-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.04.026
González-Alonso, J., Crandall, C. G., & Johnson, J. M. (2008). The cardiovascular challenge of exercising in the heat. J Physiol. 586, 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142158
Howard, R. M., Conway, R., & Harrison, A. J. (2016). A survey of sensor devices: use in sports biomechanics. Sports Biomech. 15, 450-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2016.1174289
Karvonen, J. & Vuorimaa, T. (1988). Heart rate and exercise intensity during sports activities. Sports Med. 5, 303–11. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198805050-00002
Kenefick, R. W., Cheuvront, S. N., & Sawka, M. N. (2007). Thermoregulatory function during the marathon. Sports Med. 37, 312-15. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737040-00010
Koblbauer, I. F., van Schooten, K. S., Verhagen, E. A., & van Dieën, J. H. (2014). Kinematic changes during running-induced fatigue and relations with core endurance in novice runners. J. Sci. Med. Sport. 17, 419–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.05.013
Lahiri, B. B., Bagavathiappan, S., Jayakumar, T. & Philip, J. (2012). Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review. Infrared Phys.Technol. 55, 221–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2012.03.007
Lim, C. L., Byrne, C., & Lee, J. K. W. (2008). Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore. 37, 347-53.
Merla, A., Mattei, P. A., Di Donato, L., & Romani, G. L. (2010). Thermal imaging of cutaneous temperature modifications in runners during graded exercise. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 158–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-009-9809-8
Mero, A., Komi, P. V., & Gregor, R. J. (1992). Biomechanics of sprint running. A review. Sports Med. 13, 376-92. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199213060-00002
Millet, G. Y., Divert, C., & Banizette, M. (2010). Changes in running pattern due to fatigue and cognitive load in orienteering. J. Sports Sci. 28, 153-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903406190
Mizrahi, J., Verbitsky, O., Isakov, E. & Daily, D. (2000). Effect of fatigue on leg kinematics and impact acceleration in long distance running. Hum. Mov. Sci. 19, 139-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-9457(00)00013-0
Möhler, F., Ringhof, S., Debertin, D., & Stein, T. (2019). Influence of fatigue on running coordination: A UCM analysis with a geometric 2D model and a subject-specific anthropometric 3D model. Hum. Mov. Sci. 66, 133–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.03.016
Morin, J. B., Tomazin, K., Edouard, P., & Millet, G. Y. (2011). Changes in running mechanics and spring–mass behavior induced by a mountain ultra-marathon race. J. Biomech. 44, 1104–1107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.01.028
Murphy, K., Curry, E. J., & Matzkin, E. G. (2013). Barefoot running: Does it prevent injuries? Sports Med. 43, 1131-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0093-2
Nes, B. M., Janszky, I., Wisløff, U., Støylen, A. & Karlsen, T. (2013). Age-predicted maximal heart rate in healthy subjects: The HUNT fitness study. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 23, 697–704. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01445.x
Novacheck, T. F. (1998). The biomechanics of running. Review Paper. Gait Posture. 7, 77−95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-6362(97)00038-6
Reenalda, J., Maartens, E., Homan, L., & Buurke, J. H. (2016). Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics. J. Biomech. 49, 3362-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.08.032
Ring, E.F.J., & Ammer, K.. (2012). Infrared thermal imaging in medicine. Physiol. Meas. 33, R33−6. https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/33/3/R33
Roberts, B. C., Waller, T. M., & Caine, M. P. (2007). Thermoregulatory response to base-layer garments during treadmill exercise. Int. J. Sports Sci. Eng. 1, 29-38.
Scholz, M. N., Bobbert, M. F., van Soest, A. J., Clark, J. R., & van Heerden, J. (2008). Running biomechanics: Shorter heels, better economy. J. Exp. Biol. 211, 3266−71. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.018812
Smith, C. J. & Havenith, G. (2011). Body mapping of sweating patterns in male athletes in mild exercise-induced hyperthermia. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 111, 1391–404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1744-8
Souza, R. B. (2016). An evidence-based videotaped running biomechanics analysis. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. 27 217−36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2015.08.006
Steadman, R. G. (1979). The assessment of sultriness. Part I: A temperature-humidity index based on human physiology and clothing science. J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 861-73.
Tanda, G. (2016). Skin temperature measurements by infrared thermography during running exercise. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 71, 103-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.10.006
Tanda, G. (2018). Total body skin temperature of runners during treadmill exercise. A pilot study. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 131, 1967-77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6634-4
Tartaruga, M. P., Brisswalter, J., Peyré-Tartaruga, L. A., Ávila, A. O. V., Alberton, C. L., Coertjens, M., Cadore, E. L., Tiggemann, C. L., Silva, E. M., & Kruel, L. F. M. (2012). The relationship between running economy and biomechanical variables in distance runners. Res. Q. for Exerc. Sport. 83 367−75. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2012.10599870
Tawa, N., & Louw, Q. (2018). Biomechanical factors associated with running economy and performance of elite Kenyan distance runners: A systematic review. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 22, 1−10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2017.11.004
Thordarson, D. B. (1997). Running biomechanics. Clin. Sports Med. 16, 239-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-5919(05)70019-3
Tian, F., Li, N., Zheng, Z., Huang, Q., Zhu, T., Li, Q., Wang, W., Tsai, T.-Y., & Wang, S. (2020). The effects of marathon running on three-dimensional knee kinematics during walking and running in recreational runners. Gait Posture. 75, 72–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.08.009
Vercruyssen, F., Tartaruga, M., Horvais, N., & Brisswalter, J. (2016). Effects of footwear and fatigue on running economy and biomechanics in trail runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 48, 1976-84. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000981
Williams, K. R., Snow, R., & Agruss, C. (1991). Changes in distance running kinematics with fatigue. Int. J. Sport Biomech. 7, 138−62. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsb.7.2.138
Winter, D. A., Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. Wiley 2009.
Zhang, Z. (2000) A flexible new technique for camera calibration. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330−4. https://doi.org/10.1109/34.888718
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.