Lower limb muscle activation and kinematics modifications of young healthy adults while pushing a variable resistance sled
Keywords:Variable resistance sled, Gait parameters, Muscle activation
Introduction: The XPO Trainer used in this research is a novel device which provides low rolling resistance at low speeds with an immediate and automatic proportional increase in resistance with increased speed. Purpose: To examine the impact of using the XPO Trainer on gait and neuromuscular activation at low and high speeds in young, seemingly healthy adults. Materials and Methods: This work consisted of 35 healthy adults (age: 24.9 ± 3.2 years, weight: 149.8 ± 8 lbs, height: 66.6 ± 4.4 inches). Each participant wore accelerometers/gyroscopes sensors around each wrist and ankle, chest, and low back and surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes on their dominant leg over the quadriceps (QUAD), hamstring (HAM), anterior tibialis (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA). To initiate the tasks, participants walked then ran 40 feet with and without the XPO Trainer sled. Subjects did a total of 3 trials per tasks (total of 12) with one minute of rest between tasks to reduce fatigue factor. The data from the EMG and Mobility Lab sensors were then processed and compared through the SPSS 24 system for a repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: EMG- The QUAD muscle exhibited a substantial higher muscle activation between walk (45.39 ± 24.43) and walk push (74.40 ± 56.73) tasks. Gait Parameters- There was a significant modification (p ≤ .05) between the different gait variables and tasks, including cadence, gait speed, stride length and trunk velocity while pushing the sled. Conclusion/Clinical Relevance: With the XPO Trainer being a novel device, it is important to understand how it affects the activation and response for muscles during different activities before using it as a training tool. Understanding the effect this particular sled can provide on the different components of the (temporospatial) gait parameters and muscle activation is valuable for a clinically appropriate application to specific populations.
FundingTexas Woman's University Physical Therapy Program
Brill PA, Macera CA, Davis DR, Blair SN, Gordon N. (2000) Muscular strength and physical function. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 32(2):412–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200002000-00023
Brooks N, Layne JE, Gordon PL, Roubenoff R, Nelson ME, Castaneda-Sceppa C. (2007) Strength training improves muscle quality and insulin sensitivity in Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. Int J Med Sci., 4(1):19–27. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.4.19
Cassilhas RC, Antunes HK, Tufik S, de Mello MT (2010). Mood, anxiety, and serum IGF-1 in elderly men given 24 weeks of high resistance exercise. Percept Mot Skills., 110(1):265–76. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.110.1.265-276
Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-Orians L, (2002) A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care., 25(12):2335–41. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.12.2335
Collier S, Kanaley J, Carhart R Jr, (2009). Cardiac autonomic function and baroreflex changes following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic training in individuals with pre hypertension. Acta Physiol (Oxf)., 195(3):339–48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.2008.01897.x
FitzGerald SJBC, Kampert JB, Morrow JR Jr, Jackson AW, Blair SN (2004). Muscular fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study. J Phys Act Health., 1:7–18.
Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ (1997). Designing resistance training programs. 2nd ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics.
Fry, A.C., Smith, J.C., & Schilling, B.K. (2003). Effect of knee position on hip and knee torques during the barbell squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(4), 629-633.
Gale CR, Martyn CN, Cooper C, Sayer AA (2007). Grip strength, body composition, and mortality. Int J Epidemiol., 36(1):228–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl224
Guadagnin, E.C., Barbieri, F.A., Simieli, L., & Carpes, F.P. (2019). Is muscular and functional performance related to gait symmetry in older adults? A systematic review. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 84, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.103899
Jurca , LaMonte MJ, Barlow CE, Kampert JB, Church TS, Blair SN (2005). Association of muscular strength with incidence of metabolic syndrome in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 37(11):1849–55. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000175865.17614.74
Henderson, R.M., Leng, X.I., Chmelo, E.A., Brinkley, T.E., Lyles, M.F., Marsh, A.P., & Nicklas, B.J. (2017). Gait speed response to aerobic versus resistance exercise training in older adults. Aging Clinical & Experimental Research, 29(5), 969-976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-016-0632-4
Hunter GR, McCarthy JP, Bamman MM (2004). Effects of resistance training on older adults. Sports Med., 34(5):329–48. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434050-00005
Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR (2004), American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand: physical activity and bone health. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 36(11): 1985–96. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000142662.21767.58
Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA (2004). Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 36:674–8. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000121945.36635.61
Kraemer, William J., (2017). Understanding the science of resistance training: An evolutionary perspective. Sports Medicine. 47.12, 2415-2435.
Li, W; Li, Z; Qie, S; Yang, H; Chen, X; Liu, Y; Li, Z; Zhang, K. (2020) Analysis of the activation modalities of the lower limb muscles during walking. Technol Health Care. https://doi.org/10.3233/thc-191939
Maddigan M, Button D, Behm D. (2014) Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscle Activation with Back Squats and Weighted Sled Apparatus. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research., 28(12):3346-3353. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000697
Medicine AcoS (2009). Position stand: progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 41:687–708. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3181915670
Okkonen, O. & Häkkinen, K. (2013). Biomechanical comparison between sprint start, sled pulling, and selected squat-type exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(10), 2662-2673. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e31829992b0
Osawa, Y., Shaffer, N.C., Shardell, M.D., Studenski, S.A, & Ferrucci, L. (2019). Changes in knee extension peak torque and body composition and their relationship with change in gain speed. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopania and Muscle, 10(5), 1000-1008. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12458
Pantoia PD, Carvalho AR, Ribas LR, Peyre-Tartaruga LA. (2018) Effect of weighted sled towing on sprinting effectiveness, power and force-velocity relationship., 13(10):0204473. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204473
Park, B.-S., Kim, M.-Y., Lee, L.-K., Yang, S.-M., Lee, W.-D., Noh, J.-W., … Kim, J. (2015). The effects of a progressive resistance training program on walking ability in patients after stroke: a pilot study. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(9), 2837–2840. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.2837
Pistacchi, M., Gioulis, M., Sanson, F., Giovannini, E.D., Filippi, G., Rossetto, F. & Marsala, S.Z. (2017). Gait analysis and clinical correlations in early Parkinson’s disease. Functional Neurology, 32(1), 28-34.
Puetz TW (2006). Physical activity and feelings of energy and fatigue: epidemiological evidence. Sports Med.36(9):767–80. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636090-00004
Reynaud, V., Morel, C., Givron, P., Clavelou, P., Cornut-Chauvinc, C., Pereira, B., Taithe, F., & Coudeyre, E. (2019). Walking speed is correlated with the isometric muscular strength of the knee in patients with chariot-marie-tooth type 1a. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98(5), 422-425. https://doi.org/10.1097/phm.0000000000001084
Sahil, S., Rebai, H., Elleuch, M.H., Tabka, Z., & Poumarat, G. (2008). Tibiofemoral joint kinetics during squatting with increasing external load. Journal of Sports Rehabilitation, 17(3), 300-315. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.17.3.300
Schoenfeld, BJ; Grgic, J; Haun, C; Itagaki, T; Helms. (2019) Calculating Set-Volume for the Limb Muscles with the Performance of Multi-Joint Exercises: Implications for Resistance Training PrescriptionSports (Basel), vol. 7(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7070177
Shumway-Cook, A., & Woollacott, M. H. (2007). Motor control: Translating research into clinical practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. APA (6th ed.).
Staron RS, Karapondo DL, Kraemer WJ, Fry AC, Gordon SE, Falkel JE, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994;76:1247–55. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2067
Staron RS, Leonardi MJ, Karapondo DL, Malicky ES, Falkel JE, Hagerman FC, (1985). Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy-resistance-trained women after detraining and retraining. J Appl Physiol. 1991;70:631–40. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.111
Staron RS, Malicky ES, Leonardi MJ, Falkel JE, Hagerman FC, Dudley GA (1989). Muscle hypertrophy and fast fiber type conversions in heavy resistance-trained women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 60:71–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00572189
Teixeira-Samela, L.F., Olney, S.J., Nadeau, S., & Brouwer, B. (1999). Muscle strengthening and physical conditioning to reduce impairment and disability in chronic stroke survivors. Archive of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(10), 1211-1218. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-9993(99)90018-7
Williams MA, Haskell WL, Ades PA, (2007). Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation., 116(5): 572–84. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.107.185214
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.