Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Muscle activation patterns in paralympic and novices hand cycling during incremental test

Stefan Kratzenstein, Jan-Peter Brückner

Abstract

The few studies on muscle timing in hand cycling are difficult to classify in the motor skill acquirement due to their variety of methods and content. This study aims to replicate two existing studies and thus to extend and connect the current state of research concerning the muscle timing during synchronous pedalling. The activity on- and offset of biceps brachii, triceps brachii, posterior deltoid, anterior deltoid, upper trapezius, and pectoralis major were identified during an incremental test of an elite and three novice athletes. The results showed differences in inter-muscular coordination between the elite and novice hand cyclists. Although the distinction between active and inactive phases was already evident in novice data, the activation pattern of the elite athlete showed an even more precise differentiation between these two phases. These time windows remained stable even with increasing load accompanied only by changes in all signal amplitude, except for deltoid activity, which showed a later onset and offset with increasing load. Thus, in training of hand cyclist novices, the muscle timing concerning the duration and the crank position should be considered. In future studies, the effect of handicap severity and crank frequency must be studied in greater detail.


Keywords

Inter-muscle coordination; Electromyography; Motor control; Paralympic sports

References

Arnet, U., van Drongelen, S., Schlüssel, M., Lay, V., van der Woude, L. H. V., & Veeger, H. E. J. (2014). The effect of crank position and backrest inclination on shoulder load and mechanical efficiency during handcycling. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports, 24(2), 386–394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01524.x

Bernstein, N. (1984). Chapter IV Some Emergent Problems of the Regulation of Motor Acts. In Advances in Psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 343–371). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)61376-X

Blake, O. M., Champoux, Y., & Wakeling, J. M. (2012). Muscle coordination patterns for efficient cycling. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, 44(5), 926–938. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182404d4b

Bonato, P., D'Alessio, T., & Knaflitz, M. (1998). A statistical method for the measurement of muscle activation intervals from surface myoelectric signal during gait. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering, 45(3), 287–299. https://doi.org/10.1109/10.661154

Borg, G. (1998). Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics.

Bressel, E., Bressel, M., Marquez, M., & Heise, G. D. (2001). The effect of handgrip position on upper extremity neuromuscular responses to arm cranking exercise. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 11(4), 291–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1050-6411(01)00002-5

Brueckner, D., Kiss, R., & Muehlbauer, T. (2018). Associations Between Practice-Related Changes in Motor Performance and Muscle Activity in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine - Open, 4(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-018-0123-6

Chapman, A. R., Vicenzino, B., Blanch, P., & Hodges, P. W. (2008). Patterns of leg muscle recruitment vary between novice and highly trained cyclists. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 18(3), 359–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.12.007

Cohen, J. (2013). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. Retrieved from http://gbv.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1192162

DeLuca, C. J. (1997). The Use of Surface Electromyography in Biomechanics. J. Appl. Biomech, 13(2), 135–163. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.13.2.135

Faupin, A., Gorce, P., Watelain, E., Meyer, C., & Thevenon, A. (2010). A biomechanical analysis of handcycling: A case study. J. Appl. Biomech, 26(2), 240–245. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.26.2.240

Hermens, H. J. (1999). European recommendations for surface ElectroMyoGraphy: Results of the SENIAM project. SENIAM: Vol. 8. Enschede: Roessingh Research and Development. Retrieved from http://www.seniam.org/pdf/contents8.PDF

Hug, F., Bendahan, D., Le Fur, Y., Cozzone, P. J., & Grélot, L. (2004). Heterogeneity of muscle recruitment pattern during pedaling in professional road cyclists: A magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography study. Eur J Appl Physiol, 92(3), 334–342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1096-3

Hug, F., & Dorel, S. (2009). Electromyographic analysis of pedaling: A review. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 19(2), 182–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2007.10.010

Kouwijzer, I., Nooijen, C. F. J., van Breukelen, K., Janssen, T. W. J., & Groot, S. de (2018). Effects of push-off ability and handcycle type on handcycling performance in able-bodied participants. J Rehabil Med, 50(6), 563–568. https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2343

Lindschulten, R. (2008). Leistungsphysiologische, hämatologische und elektromyographische Untersuchungen im Handbikesport bei Menschen mit einer Verletzung oder Erkrankung des Rückenmarks [Performance physiological, hematological and electromyographic examinations in hand-cycling in people with spinal cord injury or disease] (Dissertation). German Sport University Cologne, Cologne. Retrieved from https://portal.dnb.de/opac.htm?method=simpleSearch&cqlMode=true&query=idn%3D1070571849

Litzenberger, S., Mally, F., & Sabo, A. (2015). Influence of Different Seating and Crank Positions on Muscular Activity in Elite Handcycling - A Case Study. Procedia Engineering, 112, 355–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.07.262

Marciello, M. A., Herbison, G. J., Cohen, M. E., & Schmidt, R. [Richard] (1995). Elbow extension using anterior deltoids and upper pectorals in spinal cord-injured subjects. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 76(5), 426–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(95)80571-0

Merlo, A., Farina, D., & Merletti, R. (2003). A fast and reliable technique for muscle activity detection from surface EMG signals. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering, 50(3), 316–323. https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2003.808829

Milner, T. E. (2004). Accuracy of internal dynamics models in limb movements depends on stability. Experimental Brain Research, 159(2), 172–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-004-1944-8

Morriën, F., Taylor, M. J. D., & Hettinga, F. J. (2017). Biomechanics in Paralympics: Implications for Performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 12(5), 578–589. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0199

O'Bryan, S. J., Brown, N. A. T., Billaut, F., & Rouffet, D. M. (2014). Changes in muscle coordination and power output during sprint cycling. Neuroscience Letters, 576, 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2014.05.023

Perry, J., & Burnfield, J. M. (2010). Gait analysis: Normal and pathological function (2. ed.). Thorofare, NJ: SLACK.

Quittmann, O. J., Abel, T., Albracht, K., & Strüder, H. K. (2019). Reliability of muscular activation patterns and their alterations during incremental handcycling in able-bodied participants. Sports Biomech, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2019.1593496

Quittmann, O. J., Meskemper, J., Abel, T., Albracht, K., Foitschik, T., Rojas-Vega, S., & Strüder, H. K. (2018). Correction to: Kinematics and kinetics of handcycling propulsion at increasing workloads in able-bodied subjects. Sports Engineering, 21(4), 295. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-018-0274-1

Sigward, S., & Powers, C. M. (2006). The influence of experience on knee mechanics during side-step cutting in females. Clin Biomechanics, 21(7), 740–747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2006.03.003

Stone, B., Mason, B. S., Warner, M. B., & Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L. (2019). Horizontal Crank Position Affects Economy and Upper Limb Kinematics of Recumbent Handcyclists. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 51(11), 2265–2273. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002062

Union cycliste internationale (2015). Rules and Regulations. Retrieved from http://www.uci.org/docs/default-source/rules-and-regulations/part-xvi--para-cycling.pdf?sfvrsn=47af1c56_8

Zerby, S. A., Herbison, G. J., Marino, R. J., Cohen, M. E., & Schmidt, R. R. (1994). Elbow extension using the anterior deltoids and the upper pectorals. Muscle & Nerve, 17(12), 1472–1474. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.880171220




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2021.164.19





Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.