"Cognitive PNF" to implement adolescent muscle-tendon flexibility
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the significance of concept of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation "Cognitive PNF" training in increasing muscle-tendon flexibility over the course of 4 weeks (8 training sessions) in a group of 10 participants aged between 13 and 14 years old, comparing it with another group of 10 participants of the same age, subjected instead to 8 sessions of static stretching. The 20 participants underwent a series of entrance tests, in order to identify the level of flexibility and relative joint mobility of the hip, lumbar spine and shoulder joints: Thomas test, hip extension test, lumbar spine flexion, shoulder range test. Subsequently, through the flexibility index, a lack of flexibility in the participants emerged. The statistical model used for both samples is the T-Test for dependent samples. In the control group, the value of the Stat t (-1.17) falls within the acceptance region which is given by the two-tailed critical t (-2.30; 2.30), therefore, the difference between two averages is not significant. In the experimental group, the value of the Stat t (-5.73) falls outside the acceptance region which is given by the two-tailed critical t (-2.26; 2.26), in other words, in the rejection region rejecting the null hypothesis which states that the difference between the two averages is not significant.
Altavilla, G., D'elia, F., D'isanto, T., Manna, A. (2019)Tests for the evaluation of the improvement of physical fitness and health at the secondary school, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, art. no. 262, pp. 1784-1787.
Altavilla, G., D'Elia, F., Raiola, G. (2018) A breif review of the effects of physical activity in subjects with cardiovascular disease: An interpretative key, Sport Mont, 16 (3), pp. 103-106. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.181018
Altavilla, G. (2014) Effects of the practice of muscle stretching [Učinci vježbanja stretchinga muskulature],Sport Science, 7 (1), pp. 66-67.
Amler, W., Bernatzky, P., & Knörzer, W. (2006). Integratives Mentaltraining im Sport. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Bandy WD, Irion JM. The effect of time on static stretch on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles. Phys Ther 1994; 74(9):54-59. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/74.9.845
Cereda, F. (2009). Fitness & Wellness-Il tuo Personal Trainer Volume 4-Migliorare la flessibilità.
Cerini, G. (2012). Indicazioni nazionali per il curricolo della scuola dell'infanzia e del primo ciclo d'istruzione.
Chiarelli, F., SIMA, C. D., de Sanctis, V., Pintor, C., Bertelloni, S., Raiola, G., ... & Vullo, C. (2004). Catanzaro 06-09 Ottobre 2005-Salute per tutti. Rivista Italiana di Medicina dell'Adolescenza, 2, 1.
Colella, D. (2009). La Resistenza, la Forza, la Mobilità articolare, la Velocità.
D'Elia F, D'Andrea D, Esposito G, Altavilla G, Raiola G (2021a). Increase the Performance Level of Young Basketball Players through the Use of High Intensity Interval Training. International journal of human movement and sports sciences, vol. 9, p. 445-450, ISSN: 2381-4403. https://doi.org/10.13189/saj.2021.090308
D'Elia F, Esposito G, D'Isanto T, Altavilla G, Raiola G (2021b). Impact of the racket on mobility performance in wheelchair tennis. . Sportske nauke i zdravlje Sports science and health, vol. 11, p. 11-15, ISSN: 2232-822X.
Elia, F.D., Domenico, F.D., Isanto, T.D., Altavilla, G., Raiola, G. (2020) From biomechanics to motor learning, Acta Medica Mediterranea, 36 (5), pp. 3073-3078.
Fivela, L. G. (2011). Lo stretching: prevenzione degli infortuni muscolari e prestazione sportiva.
Gaetano, R. (2012a) Motor learning and didactics into physical education and sport documents in middle school-first cycle of education in Italy, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12 (2), pp. 157-163.
Gaetano, R. (2012b) Didactics of volleyball into the educate program for coaches/trainers/ technicians of Italian Federation of Volleyball (FIPAV) Journal of physical education and sport, 12 (1), pp. 25-29.
Gleim GW, McHugh MP. Flexibility and its effects on sports injury and performance. Sport Med 1997; 24:290-299. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199724050-00001
Gollin, M., Gioda, M., Luciano, A., Palma, S., & Casale, L. (2011). Estensibilità muscolo-tendinea e riscaldamento.
Halbertsma JPK, van Bolhuis AI, Goeken LNH. Sport stretching: effect on passive muscle stiffness of short hamstrings. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77:688-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(96)90009-X
Konrad, A., Gad, M., & Tilp, M. (2015). Effect of PNF stretching training on the properties of human muscle and tendon structures. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 25(3), 346-355. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12228
Martorelli, L. (2015). Esercizi atletici per sport e fitness: forza, rapidità, flessibilità, resistenza e coordinazione. Hoepli Editore.
Nyberg, L., Eriksson, J., Larsson, A., & Marklund, P. (2006). Learning by doing versus learning by thinking: an fMRI study of motor and mental training. Neuropsychologia, 44(5), 711-717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.08.006
Penati, V. (2015). Tecniche mentali per il potenziamento della prestazione sportiva. Edizioni FerrariSinibaldi.
Raiola, G. (2020a) Proposal of rearrangement of physical training and sport sciences methodology academic disciplines in Italian university body, Sport Science, 14 (1), pp. 43-47.
Raiola, G. (2020b) The Movement and Sport Science in Italy towards the European Research Council, Physical Culture and Sport, Studies and Research, 86 (1), pp. 37-48. https://doi.org/10.2478/pcssr-2020-0011
Raiola, G., Domenico, F.D., Isanto, T.D., Altavilla, G., Elia, F.D. (2020) Biomechanics core, Acta Medica Mediterranea, 36 (5), pp. 3079-3083.
Raiola, G. (2019a) Complex study for an epistemology of exercise and sport sciences: A)keyconceptsofboth ERC subpanels and CUN keywords; b) physical training and sport methodology sciences academic disciplines in pedagogy recruitment sector and biomedical one: A correlationships study, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, art. no. 255, pp. 1748-1754.
Raiola, G. (2019b)Comparison of exercise and sport sciences epistemology between european research council structure panel and Italian academic system, Sport Science, 12, pp. 112-120.
Raiola, G. (2019c)Survey on exercise and sport sciences in Italy, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14 (Proc4), pp. S1163-S1168. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.81
Raiola, G. Motor learning and teaching method(2017) Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17, art. no. 236, pp. 2239-2243.
Raiola, G. (2015a) Inclusion in sport dance and self perception, Sport Science, 8, pp. 99-102.
Raiola, G. (2015b) Sport skills and mental health, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 10 (Specialissue), pp. S369-S376. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2015.10.Proc1.27
Raiola, G. (2015c) Basketball feint and non-verbal communication: Empirical framework, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 10 (Specialissue1), pp. 360-368. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2015.10.Proc1.26
Raiola, G. (2013) Body knowledge and motor skills, Knowledge Cultures, 1 (6), pp. 64-72.
Raiola, G. (2011a) Study between neurophysiological aspects and regulation documents on preschool in Italy, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 11 (1), pp. 42-47.
Raiola, G. (2011b)A study on Italian primary school rules: Neurophysiological and didactics aspects n physical education and sport. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 11 (2), pp. 43-48.
Surian, M. (2021). Mental training per gli sportivi: Strategie e abilità mentali per la performance atletica. Edizioni LSWR.
Tiziana, D., Antonetta, M., Gaetano, A. (2017) Health and physical activity [Zdravlje i tjelesna aktivnost] Sport Science, 10 (1), pp. 100-105.
Viscione, I., Invernizzi, P.L., Raiola, G. (2019) Physical education in secondary higher school, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14 (Proc4), pp. S706-S712. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.31
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.