Non-traditional training in youth soccer players: Effects on agility and on sprint performance
Soccer is a high-intensity activity requiring several physical and technical components such as agility, speed, strength, and power production. High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a relatively new training modality that emphasizes functional, multi-joint movements that elicit greater muscle recruitment with respect to more traditional exercises. The aim of the study was to verify the effects of 8 weeks of non-traditional training, specifically HIFT, on agility and sprint performance in young soccer players. Twenty-eight male subjects (M age 12.6 ± SD 0.5 years) were divided into an experimental group that performed the HIFT (NTT, n = 14) and in a control group (TT, n = 14) that followed a traditional training. HIFT included functional exercises, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), technical exercises, agility, and change of direction ability. Twenty meters sprint test and 21-m agility test were administered to assess sprint performance and agility, respectively. After 8 weeks of training a significant interaction Group x Time (p < .01) was found for NTT for agility and a non-significant improvement in relation to sprint performance (p > .05). No differences were detected in the TT. An 8-week NTT based on HIFT can represent an innovative and additional methodology to improve the agility performance of young soccer players.
Altmann, S., Hoffmann, M., Kurz, G., Neumann, R., Woll, A., & Haertel, S. (2015). Different starting distances affect 5-m sprint times. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(8), 2361-2366. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000865
Bangsbo, J. Fitness Training in Football. A Scientific Approach. August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 1994. pp. 112-113.
Bloomfield, J, Polman, R, O'Donoghue, P, and McNaughton, L (2007). Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21:1093-1100. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200711000-00020
Bonavolontà, V., Carvutto, R., Di Gioia, A., & De Candia, M. (2021). Plyometric training on sand versus grass: Effects on sprinting, jumping, agility and balance in soccer players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 16(3proc), S1104-S1113. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2021.16.Proc3.27
Bonavolontà, V., Cataldi, S., Maci, D., & Fischetti, F. (2020). Physical activities and enjoyment during the lockdown: Effect of home-based supervised training among children and adolescents. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15 (Proc. 4), S1338 - S1343. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.15.Proc4.31
Cataldi, S., Francavilla, V.C., Bonavolontà, V., de Florio, O., Carvutto, R., De Candia, M., Latino, F., Fischetti, F. (2021). Proposal for a Fitness Program in the School Setting during the COVID 19 Pandemic: Effects of an 8-Week CrossFit Program on Psychophysical Well-Being in Healthy Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 18, 3141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063141
Cesanelli, L., Ylaitė, B., Messina, G., Zangla, D., Cataldi, S., Palma, A., & Iovane, A. (2021). The impact of fluid loss and carbohydrate consumption during exercise, on young cyclists' fatigue perception in relation to training load level. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063282
Cronin, J.B., Green, J.P., Levin, G.T., Brughelli, M.E., & Frost, D.M. (2007). Effect of starting stance on initial sprint performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 990. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-22536.1
Di Domenico, F., D'isanto, T., Raiola, G. (2019) Role of speed and agility in the effectiveness of motor performance, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, art. no. 271, pp. 1836-1842.
Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Montero, F. C., Bachl, N., & Pigozzi, F. (2007). Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. International journal of sports medicine, 28(03), 222-227. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-924294
Esposito, G., Raiola, G. (2020) Monitoring the performance and technique consolidation in youth football players, Trends in Sport Sciences, 27 (2), pp. 93-100.
Falk Neto, J.H., & Kennedy, M.D. (2019). The multimodal nature of high-intensity functional training: potential applications to improve sport performance. Sports, 7(2), 33. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7020033
Faude, O., Koch, T., & Meyer, T. (2012). Straight sprinting is the most frequent action in goal situations in professional football. Journal of sports sciences, 30(7), 625-631. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.665940
Faude, O., Schnittker, R., Schulte-Zurhausen, R., Müller, F., & Meyer, T. (2013). High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(13), 1441-1450. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.792953
Feito, Y., Heinrich, K.M., Butcher, S.J. Poston, W.S.C. High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT): Definition and Research Implications for Improved Fitness (2018). Sports (Basel), 6, 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030076
Fischetti, F., Cataldi, S., & Greco, G. (2019). Lower-limb plyometric training improves vertical jump and agility abilities in adult female soccer players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(2), 1254-1261. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2019.02182
Fischetti, F., Cataldi, S., Bonavolontà, V., Francavilla, V. C., Panessa, P., & Messina, G. (2020). Hypertrophic adaptations of lower limb muscles in response to three different resistance training regimens. Acta Medica Mediterranea, 36(5), 3235-3241. https://doi.org/10.19193/0393-6384_2020_5_499
Gibala, M.J., Gillen, J.B., & Percival, M.E. (2014). Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval training: influences of nutrition and sex. Sports Medicine, 44(2), 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0259-6
John, D., & Tsatsouline, P. (2011). Easy Strength. Dragon Door Publications.
Klein, K.K., & Allman JR, F.L. (1971). The Knee in Sports. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 50(1), 44.
Kuruganti, U., Murphy, T., & Pardy, T. (2011). Bilateral deficit phenomenon and the role of antagonist muscle activity during maximal isometric knee extensions in young, athletic men. European journal of applied physiology, 111(7), 1533-1539. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1752-8
Latino, F., Cataldi, S., & Fischetti, F. (2021). Effects of a Coordinative Ability Training Program on Adolescents' Cognitive Functioning. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 60. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.620440
Laursen, P.B. (2010). Training for intense exercise performance: high‐intensity or high‐volume training? Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 20, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01184.x
Marín-Pagán, C., Blazevich, A.J., Chung, L.H., Romero-Arenas, S., Freitas, T.T., & Alcaraz, P.E. (2020). Acute physiological responses to high-intensity resistance circuit training vs. traditional strength training in soccer players. Biology, 9(11), 383. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9110383
Millefanti, A., Trecroci, A., Banchi, M. (2016). Il precampionato dei Giovani. Cosa Fare con Allievi, Giovanissimi ed Esordienti. Edizioni Correre.
Nikolaidis, P.T., Ruano, M.A.G., de Oliveira, N. C., Portes, L. A., Freiwald, J., Leprêtre, P. M., & Knechtle, B. (2016). Who runs the fastest? Anthropometric and physiological correlates of 20 m sprint performance in male soccer players. Research in Sports Medicine, 24(4), 341-351. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2016.1222281
Raiola, G., Altavilla, G. (2020) Testing motor skills, general and special coordinative, in young soccer, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15 (Proc2), pp. S206-S212. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.15.Proc2.11
Reilly, T. (2005). An ergonomics model of the soccer training process. Journal of sports sciences, 23(6), 561-572. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021245
Reilly, T., Bangsbo, J., & Franks, A. (2000). Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. Journal of sports sciences, 18(9), 669-683. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410050120050
Sannicandro, I., & Cofano, G. (2017). Small-sided games in young soccer players: physical and technical variables. MOJ Sports Med, 1(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.15406/mojsm.2017.01.00001
Sannicandro, I., & Cofano, G. (2018). Small-sided games activities with external wildcard soccer players. MOJ Sports Medicine, 2(4), 128-131.
Sannicandro, I., Cofano, G., Raiola, G., Rosa, R.A., Colella, D. (2020, a). Analysis of external load in different soccer small-sided games played with external wildcard players, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20 (2), art. no. 98, pp. 672-679.
Sannicandro, I., Piccinno, A., Rosa, R.A., Raiola, G., Cofano, G. (2020, b). Analysis of external load during ssg 5vs5 with and without external wildcard (Jolly) soccer players, Sport Science, 14 (1), pp. 65-71.
Sgrò, F., Pignato, S., & Lipoma, M. (2018). Assessing the impact of gender and sport practice on students' performance required in team games. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18, 497-502.
Sheppard, J.M., & Young, W.B. (2006). Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testing. Journal of sports sciences, 24(9), 919-932. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500457109
Silva, J.R., Nassis, G.P., & Rebelo, A. (2015). Strength training in soccer with a specific focus on highly trained players. Sports medicine-open, 1(1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0006-z
Stølen, T., Chamari, K., Castagna, C., & Wisløff, U. (2005). Physiology of soccer. Sports medicine, 35(6), 501-536. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535060-00004
Turna, B., & Alp, M. (2020). The Effects of Functional Training on Some Biomotor Abilities and Physiological Characteristics in Elite Soccer Players. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(1), 164-171. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v9n1p164
Young, W.B. (2006). Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 1(2), 74-83. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.1.2.74
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.