Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Evaluation of explosive strength ability of the upper body for athletic throwers

Yuta Takanashi, Yoshimitsu Kohmura, Kazuhiro Aoki



Physical fitness evaluation of throwing athletes has been performed based on measurement items for the purpose of power evaluation of the lower limbs and whole body; however, the method for assessing the muscle strength and exertion of the upper body has not been acknowledged extensively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the evaluation of the explosive muscle performance of the upper body of an athlete using several measurement parameters, including push up jump (PJ), countermovement push up (CMPU) flight time, medicine ball throw (MBT), countermovement medicine ball throw, and one repetition maximum of the bench press (BP-1RM). The relationship between these measurement items and athletic performance as determined using the IAAF score was examined. Eleven male athletes training on a daily basis were enrolled. A significant positive correlation between MBT and athletic performance was observed, indicating the usefulness of physical fitness evaluation in athletes. Conversely, PJ and CMPU were not associated with athletic performance, suggesting that these parameters may be negatively affected by the subject’s weight. Further, BP-1RM did not show a significant correlation with athletic performance, owing to the fact that the exertion characteristics of one repetition maximum do not reflect the shrinkage rate of the muscle required for throwing. It is recommended that athletes select an event wherein their weight positively affects the competitive ability and does not affect measurement parameters. Further, explosive muscle performance without counter movements maybe incorporated into the physical fitness assessment of athletes.


Athletics thrower; Explosion; Push up; Medicine ball throw, Bench press


Aoki K, Yoshimitsu K, Kazuhiko S, Kazunori K, Hisashi N. Relationships Between Field Tests of Power and Athletic Performance in Track and Field Athletes Specializing in Power Events. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2015; 10: 133-144.

Babbitt D, Hoffa R. A Longitudinal Examination of the Throwing Career of Reese Hoffa. New Studies in Athletics, 2019; 31: 29-37.

Bartlett R. M. The biomechanics of the discus throw: A review. J Sports Sci, 1992; 10: 467-510.

Bartonietz K. Strength training for throwers. The Throws. J. Jarver, ed. Mountain View, CA: Tafnews Press, 2000; 22-24.

Bobbert M, Gerritsen K, Littjens A, and Van Soest AJ. Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height? Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1996; 28: 1402-1412.

Borgstrom A. Javelin throwing in Sweden-training and methods of evaluation. Thrower, 1989; 46: 56-59.

Bouhlel E, Chelly MS, Tabka Z, Shephard R. Relationships between maximal anaerobic power of the arms and legs and javelin performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2007; 47: 141-146.

Bourdin M, Rambaud O, Dorel S, Lacour J R, Moyen B, Rahmani A. Throwing Performance is Associated with Muscular Power. Int J Sports Med, 2010; 31: 505-510.

Gregor, R. J., Whiting, W. C. and McCoy, R. W. Kinetic analysis of Olympic discus throwers. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 1985; 1: 131-138.

Dapena J. The pattern of hammer head speed during a hammer throw and influence of gravity on its fluctuation. Journal of Biomechanics, 1984; 17: 553-339.

Hatakeyama S, Takanashi Y, Sasaki D. An investigation into characteristics of physical fitness in discus throwers. Research Quarterly of Athletics, 2011; 87: 17-26.

Hammami M, Hermassi S, Gaamouri N, Aloui G. Paul Comfort, Roy J. Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly. Field Tests of Performance and Their Relationship to Age and Anthropometric Parameters in Adolescent Handball Players. Front Physiol, 2019; 10: 1124.

Hinshaw T, Stephenson M, Sha Z, Dai B. Effect of External Loading on Force and Power Production During Plyometric Push-ups. J Strength Cond Res, 2018; 32: 1099-1108.

Hunter I, Kiggore G. Release velocity and angle in men's and women's hammer throw. Track Coach, 2003; 162: 5180-5181.

James M Clemons 1, Brian Campbell, Chris Jeansonne. Validity and Reliability of a New Test of Upper Body Power. J Strength Cond Res, 2010; 24, 1559-1565.

Jones M. Throwing. The Crowood Press: Wiltshire, 1987; 91-95.

Judge, L W. Developing Speed Strength: In-Season Training Program for the Collegiate Thrower Strength and Conditioning Journal, 2007; 29: 42-54.

Koch J, Riemann L, Davies G. Ground Reaction Force Patterns in Plyometric Push-Ups. J Strength Cond Res, 2012; 26: 2220-2227.

Maeda K, Ohyama B. K, Hirose, K, Ogata M. Relationships between throwing distance and parameters about morphology and physical strength in male discus throw. Estimating physical strength requirement corresponding to throwing distance. J J Sports Coaching Studies, 2018; 31: 175-184.

Miura K, Zushi K, Suzuki S, Mastuda M, Shimizu S. A Study of plyometrics exercise of upper limb to improve the chest pass ability in basketball Japanese Society of physical education, 2002; 47: 141-154.

Murakami M, Tanabe S, Ishikawa M, Isolehto J, Komi P. V, Ito A. Biomechanical analysis of the javelin at the 2005 IAAF World Championships in Athletics. New Studies in Athletics, 2006; 21: 67-80.

Parry G, Herrington L, Horsley I. The Test-Retest Reliability of Force Plate-Derived Parameters of the Countermovement Push-Up as a Power Assessment Tool. J Sport Rehabil, 2019; Oct 18[Online ahead of print: 1-8.

Sugumar C. A Biomechanical Analysis of The Shot Put Performance. Global Journal for Research Analysis, 2014; 3: 118-119.

Tauchi K, Murakami M, Endo T, Takesako H, Gomi K. Biomechanical analysis of elite javelin throwing technique at the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Athletics. Bulletin of Studies in Athletics of JAAF 2009; 5: 143-149.

Terzis G, Karampatsos G, Georgiadis G. Neuromuscular control and performance in shot-put athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2007; 47: 284-290.

Takanashi Y, Chinen Y, Hatakeyama S. Whole-Body Vibration Training improves the balance ability and leg strength of athletic throwers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2019; 59: 1110-1118.

Takanashi Y, Aoki K, Komura Y, Yonamoto M, Kaneko K. The effectiveness of the evaluation of athletic capability by a field-test in female college throwers. (In Japanese with English abstract) Japanese Journal of Studies in Athletics, 2009; 79: 30-38.

Takanashi Y, Fujimori N, Koikawa N. An investigation into the relationship between throw performance and maximum weight in weight training of female discus throwers. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, in press, 2020;

Tauchi K, Yoon S, Kuriyama Y, Takamatsu K. Characteristics of physical fitness for javelin throwers focusing on the ability to achieve ballistic stretch-shortening cycle movement of the lower limbs. Jpn Society Ph Edu, 2002; 47: 569-577.

Victor M R, Artur J F. The validity of general and specific strength tests to predict the shot put performance - a pilot study. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 2003; 3: 112-120.

Waller M, Gersick M, Holman D. Various Jump Training Styles for Improvement of Vertical Jump Performance. Strength and conditioning journal, 2013; 35: 82-89.

Zalleg D, Dhahbi A, Dhahbi W, Sellami M, Padulo J, Souaifi M, Bešlija T, Chamari K. Explosive Push-ups: From Popular Simple Exercises to Valid Tests for Upper-Body Power. J Strength Cond Res, 2018; Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue.

Zaras N, Stasinaki A N, Arnaoutis G, Terzis G. Predicting Throwing Performance with Field Tests. New Studies in Athletics, 2016; 31: 9-19.

Zaras, N, Stasinaki, A N, Methenitis S, Krase A, Karampatsos G, Georgiadis G, Spengos K, Terzis G. Rate of Force Development, Muscle Architecture, and Performance in Young Competitive Track and Field Throwers. Strength and Conditioning Research, 2016; 30: 81-92.

Zatsiorsky V., Lanka G., Shalmanov A. Biomechanical analysis of shot putting technique. Exercise in Sports Science Review, 1981; 9: 353-389.

Zushi K, Takamatsu K, Kotoh T. The specificity of leg strength and power in several sport athletes. Japan J. Phys. Educ, 1993; 38: 265-278.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.