Wearing a surgical mask does not affect the anaerobic threshold during pedaling exercise
Keywords:Exercise, Cardiac rehabilitation, Cardiopulmonary function
The effect of wearing a surgical mask on cardiopulmonary function and anaerobic threshold (AT) has not been reported. Thus, we aimed to determine whether cardiopulmonary function and AT vary while wearing surgical masks. Six healthy men were enrolled and underwent the cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) stress test under two different conditions (with and without a commercially available surgical mask) to evaluate their AT. To confirm that there was no breath leakage, a gas mask connected with a respiratory gas analyser was worn over the surgical mask when the participants performed the CPX. The AT was measured by the V-slope method. Moreover, the AT time, exercise load, oxygen consumption, and ventilation values after the CPX were determined. No significant differences were found between the two conditions. The number of complaints of respiratory distress, however, was significantly higher while wearing a surgical mask. The exercise intensity achieved by each participant was equivalent, irrespective of whether they wore the surgical mask; therefore, wearing a surgical mask does not affect cardiopulmonary function during vigorous exercise.
Amorim, H., Cadilha, R., Parada, F., & Rocha, A. (2015). Progression of aerobic exercise intensity in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Rev Port Cardiol, 38(4), 281–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2018.07.009
Beaver, W.L., Wasserman, K., & Whipp, B.J. (1985). A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. J Appl Physiol, 60(6), 2020–2027. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.520
Berger, A.M., Shuster, J.L., & Von Roenn, J.H. (2002). Principles and Practice of Palliative Care and Supportive Oncology (2nd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Blair, S.N., Kohl, H.W. 3rd, Barlow, C.E., Paffenbarger, R.S. Jr, Gibbons, L.W., & Macera, C.A. (1995). Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA, 273(14), 1093–1098. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520380029031
Bouaziz, W., Schmitt, E., Kaltenbach, G., Geny, B., & Vogel, T. (2015). Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act, 12, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11556-015-0152-9
Canini, L., Andreoletti, L., Ferrari, P., D’ Angelo, R., Blanchon, T., Lemaitre, M., Filleul, L., Ferry, J.P., Desmaizieres, M., Smadja, S., Valleron, A.J., & Carrat, F. (2010) . Surgical mask to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. PLoS One, 5(11), e13998. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013998
Jung HC, Lee NH, John SD, Lee S. The elevation training mask induces modest hypoxaemia but does not affect heart rate variability during cycling in healthy adults. Biology of Sport. 2019;36:105–112. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2019.79976
Kido, S., Nakajima, Y., Miyasaka, T., Maeda, Y., Tanaka, T., Yu, W., Maruoka, H., & Takayanagi, K. (2013). Effects of combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion to improve endurance capacity and respiratory muscle function in healthy young adults. J Phys Ther Sci, 25(5), 605–610. https://dx.doi.org/10.1589%2Fjpts.25.605
Koba, S., Tanaka, H., Maruyama, C., Tada, N., Birou, S., Teramoto, T., & Sasaki, J. (2011). Physical activity in the Japan population: association with blood lipid levels and effects in reducing cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. J Atheroscler Thromb, 18(10): 833–845. https://doi.org/10.5551/jat.8094
Koike, A., Hiroe, M., Adachi, H., Yajima, T., Nogami, A., Ito, H., Takamoto, T., Taniguchi, K., & Marumo, F. (1992). Anaerobic metabolism as an indicator of aerobic function during exercise in cardiac patients. J Am Coll Cardiol, 20(1), 120–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(92)90147-f
Li, Y., Tokura, H., Guo, Y.P., Wong, A.S.W., Wong, T., Chung, J., & Newton, E. (2005). Effects of wearing N95 and surgical facemasks on heart rate, thermal stress and subjective sensations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 78(6), 501–509. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-004-0584-4
Luximon, Y., Anne Sheen, K., & Luximon, A. (2016). Time dependent infrared thermographic evaluation of facemasks. Work, 54(4), 825–835. https://doi.org/10.3233/wor-162353
Matsumura, N., Nishijima, H., Kojima, S., Hashimoto, F., Minami, M., & Yasuda, H. (1983). Determination of anaerobic threshold for assessment of functional state in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation, 68(2), 360–367. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.68.2.360
Moholdt, T., Bekken Vold, M., Grimsmo, J., Slørdahl, S.A., & Wisløff, U. (2012) Home-based aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen uptake equal to residential cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized, controlled trial. PLoS One, 7(7), e41199. https://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041199
Motoyama, Y.L., Joel, G.B., Pereira, P.E.A., Esteves, G.J., & Azevedo, P.H.S.M. (2016) Airflow-restricting mask reduces acute performance in resistance exercise. Sports (Basel), 4(4). 46. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fsports4040046
Patel, R.B., Skaria, S.D., Mansour, M.M., & Smaldone, G.C. (2016). Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study. J Occup Environ Hyg, 13(7): 569–576. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F15459624.2015.1043050
Porcari, J.P., Probst, L., Forrester, K., Doberstein, S., Foster, C., Cress, M.L., & Schmidt, K. (2016). Effect of Wearing the elevation training mask on aerobic capacity, lung function, and hematological variables. J Sports Sci Med, 15(2), 379–386. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000488131.38685.16
Taylor, D. (2014). Physical activity is medicine for older adults. Postgrad Med J, 90(1059), 26–32. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-131366
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.