Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Association between vertical and horizontal force-velocity-power profiles in netball players

Juan Antonio Escobar-Álvarez, Juan Pedro Fuentes-García, Filipe Almeida Viana-da-Conceição, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes


Netball is a collective sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity actions. Therefore, the players must develop high levels of relative bilateral and unilateral strength and power for both improve performance and also reduce injury risk. The purpose of this study was (i) to provide a reference about the mechanical outputs obtained in the vertical (jumping) and horizontal force-velocity-power (FVP) profile and (ii) observe their relationship, besides the performance in jumping and sprinting in amateur female netball players (age = 24.3 ± 3.2 years, BM = 64.5 ± 5 Kg, height = 172.5 ± 6.2 cm). The variables for both FVP profiles (theoretical maximal force (F0), theoretical maximal velocity (V0) and theoretical maximal power output (Pmax)) were measured with two scientifically validated apps for iOS (My Jump 2 and My Sprint). Our results in regards to the vertical FVP suggest that netball players have low force deficit (36.2 ± 14.6%) and individualized training based on F-V profiling could be beneficial to address their deficit. The moderate correlations found for performance, V0 and Pmax suggest that the improvement in one of the skills (jumping or sprinting) may produce some positive adaptation to the other. However, no association was found in the force production (F0) of the lower limbs for both FVP. Therefore, we recommend that netball players must train specifically ballistic actions in the vertical (jumping) and horizontal direction (sprinting) due to the specificity of both skills and the consequent impact of them on netball performance.


Force; Velocity; Profile; App; Netball


Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Glaister, M., & Lockey, R. A. (2015). The validity and reliability of an iPhone app for measuring vertical jump performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(15), 1574–1579.

Comfort, P., Stewart, A., Bloom, L., & Clarkson, B. (2014). Relationships between strength, sprint, and jump performance in well-trained youth soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Cronin, J., Ogden, T., Lawton, T., & Brughelli, M. (2007). Does increasing maximal strength improve sprint running performance? Strength and Conditioning Journal.

Cross, M. R., Lahti, J., Brown, S. R., Chedati, M., Jimenez-Reyes, P., Samozino, P., … Morin, J. B. (2018). Training at maximal power in resisted sprinting: Optimal load determination methodology and pilot results in team sport athletes. PLoS ONE, 13(4).

Escobar Álvarez, Juan A., Fuentes García, J. P., Da Conceição, F. A., & Jiménez-Reyes, P. (2019). Individualized Training Based on Force–Velocity Profiling During Jumping in Ballet Dancers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.

Escobar Álvarez, Juan Antonio, Reyes, P. J., Pérez Sousa, M. Á., Conceição, F., & Fuentes García, J. P. (2020). Analysis of the Force-Velocity Profile in Female Ballet Dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science : Official Publication of the International Association for Dance Medicine & Science, 24(2), 59–65.

Fox, A. S., Spittle, M., Otago, L., & Saunders, N. (2013). Descriptive analysis of landings during international netball competition: Enhancing ecological validity of laboratory testing environments. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport.

Fox, A., Spittle, M., Otago, L., & Saunders, N. (2012). An investigation of in-game landings in elite netball: Implications for injury risk. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport.

Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science, 41 Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.

Jiménez-Olmedo, J. M., Penichet-tomás, A., & Villalón-gasch, L. (2021). Validity and reliability of smartphone high-speed camera and Kinovea for velocity-based training measurement. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, in press.

Jiménez-Reyes, P., Samozino, P., Brughelli, M., & Morin, J. B. (2017). Effectiveness of an individualized training based on force-velocity profiling during jumping. Frontiers in Physiology, 7(JAN).

Jiménez-Reyes, P., Samozino, P., García-Ramos, A., Cuadrado-Peñafiel, V., Brughelli, M., & Morin, J. B. (2018). Relationship between vertical and horizontal force-velocity-power profiles in various sports and levels of practice. PeerJ.

Jiménez-Reyes, P., Samozino, P., & Morin, J.-B. (2019). Optimized training for jumping performance using the force-velocity imbalance: Individual adaptation kinetics. PLOS ONE, 14(5), e0216681.

Jiménez-Reyes, P., Samozino, P., Pareja-Blanco, F., Conceição, F., Cuadrado-Peñafiel, V., González-Badillo, J. J., & Morin, J. B. (2017). Validity of a simple method for measuring force-velocity-power profile in countermovement jump. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(1), 36–43.

Lockie, R. G., Callaghan, S. J., Berry, S. P., Cooke, E. R. A., Jordan, C. A., Luczo, T. M., & Jeffriess, M. D. (2014). Relationship between unilateral jumping ability and asymmetry on multidirectional speed in team-sport athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Mendiguchia, J., Edouard, P., Samozino, P., Brughelli, M., Cross, M., Ross, A., … Morin, J. B. (2016). Field monitoring of sprinting power–force–velocity profile before, during and after hamstring injury: two case reports. Journal of Sports Sciences.

Mendiguchia, J., Samozino, P., Martinez-Ruiz, E., Brughelli, M., Schmikli, S., Morin, J. B., & Mendez-Villanueva, A. (2014). Progression of mechanical properties during on-field sprint running after returning to sports from a hamstring muscle injury in soccer players. International Journal of Sports Medicine.

Morin, J. B., & Samozino, P. (2016). Interpreting power-force-velocity profiles for individualized and specific training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.

Morin, Jean-Benoit, Capelo-Ramirez, F., Rodriguez-Pérez, M. A., Cross, M. R., & Jimenez-Reyes, P. (2020). Individual Adaptation Kinetics Following Heavy Resisted Sprint Training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Morin, Jean-Benoît, Petrakos, G., Jimenez-Reyes, P., Brown, S. R., Samozino, P., & Cross, M. R. (2016). Very-Heavy Sled Training for Improving Horizontal Force Output in Soccer Players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1–13.

Randell, A. D., Cronin, J. B., Keogh, J. W. L., & Gill, N. D. (2010). Transference of strength and power adaptation to sports performance-horizontal and vertical force production. Strength and Conditioning Journal.

Romero-Franco, N., Jiménez-Reyes, P., Castaño-Zambudio, A., Capelo-Ramírez, F., Rodríguez-Juan, J. J., González-Hernández, J., … Balsalobre-Fernández, C. (2017). Sprint performance and mechanical outputs computed with an iPhone app: Comparison with existing reference methods. European Journal of Sport Science, 17(4), 386–392.

Samozino, P., Edouard, P., Sangnier, S., Brughelli, M., Gimenez, P., & Morin, J. B. (2014). Force-velocity profile: Imbalance determination and effect on lower limb ballistic performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(6), 505–510.

Samozino, P., Rabita, G., Dorel, S., Slawinski, J., Peyrot, N., Saez de Villarreal, E., & Morin, J. B. (2016). A simple method for measuring power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26(6), 648–658.

Samozino, Pierre, Morin, J. B., Hintzy, F., & Belli, A. (2008). A simple method for measuring force, velocity and power output during squat jump. Journal of Biomechanics, 41(14), 2940–2945.

Samozino, Pierre, Rejc, E., Di Prampero, P. E., Belli, A., & Morin, J. B. B. (2012). Optimal force-velocity profile in ballistic movements-Altius: Citius or Fortius? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(2), 313–322.

Sinclair, C., Coetzee, F. F., & Schall, R. (2020). Physical and physiological profile of U18, U19, U21 and senior elite netball players. South African Journal of Sports Medicine.

Spencer, K., McErlain-Naylor, S. A., Paget, N., & Kilding, A. (2019). Activity profiles of elite netball umpires: A review. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15(4), 1–10.

Thomas, C., Comfort, P., Jones, P. A., & Dos’Santos, T. (2017). Strength and Conditioning for Netball: A Needs Analysis and Training Recommendations. Strength and Conditioning Journal.

Thomas, C., Ismail, K. T., Simpson, R., Comfort, P., Jones, P. A., & Dos’Santos, T. (2019). Physical profiles of female academy netball players by position. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Thomas, C., Thomas Ismail, K., Comfort, P., A. Jones, P., & Dos’Santos, T. (2016). Physical Profiles of Regional Academy Netball Players. Journal of Trainology.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.