Discriminant validity of the positive and negative processes in the C–A–P Questionnaire





Questionnaire development, Youth sport, Coaches, Parents, Athletes, Relationships


Globally, youth sport is highly valued and prevalent. Coaches, athletes, and parents are the main players. To date no one measure quantifies these vital interactions. To rectify this surprising omission, the Positive and Negative Processes in the C–A–P Questionnaire (PNPCAP) was developed in the Lithuanian language. This study sought to further the development of the PNPCAP by providing evidence for discriminant validity. To achieve this purpose, 192 females (M age = 13.64, SD = 1.59) and 239 males (M age = 14.02, SD = 1.50) completed the PNPCAP measure along with the Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, Sport Climate Questionnaire, Self-Determination Scale and provided some youth sport participation information. The resultant correlation matrix provided evidence of discriminant validity as the pattern verified the hypothesized relationship in that positive and significant correlations were found with the C–A–P positive process scale and the task orientation, self-determined awareness of self and perceived choice, and perceived autonomy support. Negative and significant correlations were found with the C–A–P negative process scale and the task orientation, self-determined awareness of self and perceived choice, and perceived autonomy support. Researchers are encouraged to translate and use the PNPCAP in youth sport settings to better the youth sport experience for athletes and their parents and coaches.


This Project/Research was funded by the European Social Fund (Project No. 09.3.3-LMT-K-712-02-0083).


Download data is not yet available.


Appleton, P. R., Ntoumanis, N., Quested, E., Viladrich, C., and Duda, J. L. (2016). Initial validation of the coach-created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C). Psychol Sport Exerc, 22, 53–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.05.008

Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., Duda, J. L., and Tomás, I. (2009). Análisis de las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del Cuestionario de Clima en el Deporte. Rev. de Psicol. del Deporte, 18(1), 73–83.

Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., and McDonough, M. H. (2009). Parents’ perceptions of child-to-parent socialization in organized youth sport. Psychol Sport Exerc, 31(4), 444–468. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.31.4.444

Camiré, M., Trudel, P., and Forneris, T. (2012). Coaching and transferring life skills: Philosophies and strategies used by model high school coaches. Sport Psychol, 26(2), 243–260. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.26.2.243

Cohen, J. (1990). Things I have learned (so far). Am Psychol, 45(12), 1304–1312. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.45.12.1304

Costello, A. B., and Osborne, J. W. (2004). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assess, 10, 1-9.

Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. J. of Manage, 21, 967-988.

Hu, L., and Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Lisinskiene, A., Lochbaum, M., May, E., and Huml, M. (2019a). Quantifying the Coach–Athlete–Parent (C–A–P) Relationship in youth sport: Initial development of the Positive and Negative Processes in the C–A–P Questionnaire (PNPCAP). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 16(21), 4140. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214140

Lisinskiene, A., May, E., and Lochbaum, M. (2019b). The initial questionnaire development in measuring of coach-athlete–parent interpersonal relationships: Results of two qualitative investigations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 16(13), 2283. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132283

Lochbaum, M., Kazak Çetinkalp, Z., Graham, K., Wright, T., and Zazo, R. (2016). Task and ego goal orientations in competitive sport: A quantitative review of the literature from 1989 to 2016. Kinesiology, 48, 3-29. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.48.1.14

Lochbaum, M., Zazo, R., Kazak Çetinkalp, Z., Graham, K., Wright, T., and Konttinen, N. (2016). A meta-analytic review of achievement goal orientation correlates in competitive sport: A follow-up to Lochbaum et al. (2016). Kinesiology, 48, 159-173. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.48.2.15

Ramonaitė, R. (2012). Studentų savideterminacijos ir savireguliacijos sąsajos su rizikingu seksualiniu elgesiu [In English Links between self-determination, self-regulation and risky sexual behaviour of students]. (Unpublished master's thesis). Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Rhind, D. J. A., and Jowett, S. (2012). Development of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Maintenance Questionnaire (CARM-Q). Int J Sports Sci Coach, 7(1), 121–137. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.7.1.121

Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D. C., and Balague, G. (1998). Achievement goals in sport: The development and validation of the Perception of Success Questionnaire. J. Sports Sc., 16(4), 337 - 347. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419808559362

Sanders, M. R., Morawska, A., Haslam, D. M., Filus, A., and Fletcher, R. (2013). Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS): Validation of a brief parent-report measure for use in assessment of parenting skills and family relationships. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev, 45(3), 255–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0397-3

Sheldon, K. M. (1995). Creativity and self-determination in personality. Creat. Res. J, 8, 61-72.

Sheldon, K. M., and Deci, E. L. (1996). The Self-Determination Scale. Unpublished manuscript, University of Rochester.

Sport Climate Questionnaire (n.d.). Found at https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/pas-sport-climate/

Zanatta. T., Rottensteiner, C., Konttinen, N., & Lochbaum, M. (2018). Individual motivations, motivational climate, enjoyment, and physical competence perceptions in Finnish team sport athletes: A prospective and retrospective study. Sports, 6(4), 165. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040165


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Lisinskiene, A., Huml, M., & Lochbaum, M. (2022). Discriminant validity of the positive and negative processes in the C–A–P Questionnaire. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 17(2), 351–357. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2022.172.10



Physical Education / Children & Exercise