Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Discriminant validity of the positive and negative processes in the C–A–P Questionnaire

Ausra Lisinskiene, Matt Huml, Marc Lochbaum



Globally, youth sport is highly valued and prevalent. Coaches, athletes, and parents are the main players. To date no one measure quantifies these vital interactions. To rectify this surprising omission, the Positive and Negative Processes in the C–A–P Questionnaire (PNPCAP) was developed in the Lithuanian language. This study sought to further the development of the PNPCAP by providing evidence for discriminant validity. To achieve this purpose, 192 females (M age = 13.64, SD = 1.59) and 239 males (M age = 14.02, SD = 1.50) completed the PNPCAP measure along with the Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, Sport Climate Questionnaire, Self-Determination Scale and provided some youth sport participation information. The resultant correlation matrix provided evidence of discriminant validity as the pattern verified the hypothesized relationship in that positive and significant correlations were found with the C–A–P positive process scale and the task orientation, self-determined awareness of self and perceived choice, and perceived autonomy support. Negative and significant correlations were found with the C–A–P negative process scale and the task orientation, self-determined awareness of self and perceived choice, and perceived autonomy support. Researchers are encouraged to translate and use the PNPCAP in youth sport settings to better the youth sport experience for athletes and their parents and coaches.


Questionnaire development; Youth sport; Coaches; Parents; Athletes; Relationships


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