Effects of a 6-week additional work on performance capacity: Hints for a parasympathic overtraining?
Keywords:Overtraining, Overreaching, Heart rate, Lactate, Performance
Introduction. Maximum performance can only be achieved with an optimal balance of training and recovery. Already 15 years ago Jeukendrup & Hesselink (1994) mentioned that hints can be derived from lactate curves concerning a potential overreaching. In this small study we show the effects of a six-week standard infantry military training on performance capacity in young elite orienteers. The potentially induced overreaching and the ingoing alterations of heart rate patterns and lactate answers shall be analysed. Material & Methods. Five young elite orienteers (22.6 ± 0.52 years / 178.4 ± 7.6 cm / 66.4 ± 3.4 kg) completed an exhaustive treadmill test, first at one and a half year before, second at half a year before and third immediately after completing a six-week period of a session of a hard infantry military training. Results. After the six-week additional military training measurements of heart rate decreased at speed 10.8 km/h from 142.6 ± 11.6 to 129.2 ± 11.9 (p = .0192); at speed 12.6 km/h from 153.4 ± 11.4 to 141.2 ± 12.6 (p = .0192); at speed 14.4 km/h from 166.4 ± 10 to 155.4 ± 12.2 (p = .02); at speed 16.2 km/h from 177.4 ± 6.9 to 168.4 ± 6.5 (p = .0244); at speed 18 km/h from 186.2 ± 5.8 to 181.4 ± 3.6 (p = .0313) compared to the measurement half a year earlier. Discussion. We strongly believe that these lower average heart rates for submaximal speed stages cannot be assessed as positive in terms of performance but might be in accordance with a parasympathetic overreaching respectively parasympathetic stimulation. The increased parasympathetic tone probably required a correspondingly stronger sympathetic stimulus for activation, which, however, could not act as efficiently as after normal training conditions as athletes were not rested well yielding to a shift of the heart rate/performance curve in line with findings of Jeukendrup & Hesselink (1994) of lactate curve in cyclists already 15 years ago.
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2517-6161.1995.tb02031.x
Borg, G. (1998). Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign: Human Kinetics. 1998.
Dobzhansky, T. (1973). Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Am B Teacher. 35: 125-129. 22. https://doi.org/10.2307/4444260
Hedelin, R.; Kentta, G.; Wiklund, U.; Bjerle, P.; Henriksson-Larsen, K. (2000). Short-term overtraining: effects on performance, circulatory responses and heart rate variability. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32(8): 1480-1484. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200008000-00017
Hooper, S.L.; Mackinnon, L.T.; Gordon R.D.; Bachmann, A.W. (1993). Hormonal responses of elite swimmers to overtraining. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25(6): 741-747. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199306000-00015
Hooper, S.L., Mackinnon, L.T. (1995). Monitoring overtraining in athletes. Recommendations. Sports Med. 20(5): 321-327. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199520050-00003
Israel, S. (1958). Die Erscheinungsformen des Übertrainings. Sportmedizin. 9: 207-209.
Jeukendrup, A. E., & Hesselink, M. K. (1994). Overtraining--what do lactate curves tell us? British journal of sports medicine, 28(4), 239-240. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.28.4.239
Kreider, R.B.; Fry, A.C.; O'Toole, M.L. (1997). Overtraining in sport: terms, definitions, and prevalence. In: Kreider, R.B.; Fry, A.C.; O'Toole, M.L. (1997). (Eds.): Overtraining in Sport, Human Kinetics. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199805001-01277
Kuipers, H., Keizer, H.A. (1988). Overtraining in elite athletes. Review and directions for the future. Sports Med. 6(2): 79-92. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198806020-00003
Mateeff, D. (1957). Muskelermüdung und allgemeine Ermüdung; I. Teil. Theorie & Praxis der Körperkultur. 6(8): 718-727.
Morgan, W.P.; O'Connor, P.J.; Sparling, P.B.; Pate, R.R. (1987). Psychological characterization of the elite female distance runner. Int. J. Sports Med. 8(Suppl. 2), 124-131. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1025717
Morgan, W.P.; O'Connor, P.J.; Ellickson, K.A.; Bradley, P.W. (1988). Personality structure, mood states, and performance in elite male distance runners. Int. J. Sport Psychol. 19(4): 247-263.
Popper, K.R. (1969). Logik der Forschung. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Tschopp, M.; Held, T.; Villiger, B.; Marti, B. (2001). Qualitätsstandards in der Ausdauerleistungsdiagnostik. Schweiz. Z. Sportmed. Sporttraumat. 49(2): 57-66.
Urhausen, A.; Kindermann, W. (2002). Uebertraining - Standards der Sportmedizin. DZSM. 53(4). 121-122.
Uusitalo, A.L.T.; Uusitalo, A.J.; Rusko, H.K. (2000). Heart rate, and blood pressure during heavy training, and overtraining in the female athlete. Int. J. Sports Med. 21(1): 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8853
Vogel, R. (2001). «Übertraining»: Begriffsklärungen, ätiologische Hypothesen, aktuelle Trends und methodische Limiten. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie. 49 (4), 154-162.
Vogel, R.; Marti, B.; Birrer, D.; Held, T.; Seiler, R.; Hoppeler, H. (2001). Performance level, regulation of the heart rate and mood scores as presumed predictors of «overtraining» in endurance athletes: A prospective study with elite athletes. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie. 163-172.
Wassiljewa, W.W.W. (1955). Einige Bemerkungen zu den Mechanismen der Ermüdung und des Übertrainings. Theorie & Praxis der Körperkultur. 4(3): 207-215.
Wehrlin, J.; Held, T.; Marti B. (2001). Vergleich von zwei Feldtests zur Schätzung der anaeroben Schwelle bei jugendlichen Spitzenläufern. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie. 49 (4), 173-175.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.