Interlimb asymmetry in collegiate American football players: Effects on combine-related performance
The assessment of interlimb asymmetry has been of interest to researchers and practitioners who desire to maximize sport performance. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between interlimb asymmetry and Combine-related performance testing in collegiate American football players. Twenty-four skill position players (e.g., running backs, defensive backs, and wide receivers) from a Division II university completed all study-related procedures including unilateral countermovement (CMJ) and drop jumps on a force plate, 3-repetition maximum Bulgarian split squats with bar movement tracked by a 3D motion capture system, and their annual spring performance tests (L-drill, pro-agility, 40-yard dash, broad jump, and vertical jump). Using an alpha-level of .05, significant, positive Spearman’s correlations between performance in the L-drill test (Change of Direction test; CoD) and asymmetries in mean peak velocity (rs = .491, p = .015), mean peak power (rs = .467, p = .021), and mean average power (rs = .455, p = .026) were observed. A significant, negative Pearson correlation between unilateral CMJ height asymmetry and vertical jump performance was observed (r = .578, p = .003). Asymmetry in mean peak velocity, mean peak power, and mean average power may negatively influence CoD ability within collegiate American football players.
Bishop, C., Brashill, C., Abbott, W., Read, P., Lake, J., & Turner, A. (2019). Jumping Asymmetries Are Associated With Speed, Change of Direction Speed, and Jump Performance in Elite Academy Soccer Players. J Strength Con Res, 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003058
Bishop, C., Read, P., Brazier, J., Jarvis, P., Chavda, S., Bromley, T., & Turner, A. (2019). Effects of Interlimb Asymmetries on Acceleration and Change of Direction Speed. J Strength Con Res, 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003135
Bishop, C., Read, P., Chavda, S., Jarvis, P., Brazier, J., Bromley, T., & Turner, A. (2020). Magnitude or Direction? Seasonal Variation of Interlimb Asymmetry in Elite Academy Soccer Players. J Strength Con Res, EPub Ahead. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003565
Bishop, C., Read, P., Lake, J., Chavda, S., & Turner, A. (2018). Inter-Limb Asymmetries: Understanding how to Calculate Differences From Bilateral and Unilateral Tests. Strength Cond J, Epub Ahead.
Bishop, C., Read, P., McCubbine, J., & Turner, A. (2018). Vertical and Horizontal Asymmetries are Related to Slower Sprinting and Jump Performance in Elite Youth Female Soccer Players. J Strength Con Res, Publish Ah. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002544
Bishop, C., Turner, A., Maloney, S., Lake, J., Loturco, I., Bromley, T., & Read, P. (2019). Eccentric and concentric jumpin performance during augmented jumps with elastic resistance: A meta-analysis. Sports, 7(1), 29.
Bishop, C., Turner, A., Maloney, S., Lake, J., Loturco, I., Bromley, T., & Read, P. (2019). Drop Jump Asymmetry is Associated with Reduced Sprint and Change-of-Direction Speed Performance in Adult Female Soccer Players. Sports, 7(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010029
Bishop, C., Turner, A., & Read, P. (2018). Effects of Inter-limb Asymmetries on Physical and Sports Performance: A Systematic Review. J Sport Sci, 36(10), 1135–1144. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1361894
Bradford, L. (2017). The Reliability and Validity of Measuring Devices for Measuring Mechanical Power (University of Kansas). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1808/26122
Flanagan, E. P., & Comyns, T. M. (2008). The Use of Contact Time and the Reactive Strength Index to Optimize Fast Stretch-Shortening Cycle Training. Strength Cond J, 30(5), 32–38. https://doi.org/10.1519/ssc.0b013e318187e25b
Fullagar, H. H. K., McCunn, R., & Murray, A. (2017). Updated Review of the Applied Physiology of American College Football: Physical Demands, Strength and Conditioning, Nutrition, and Injury Characteristics of America’s Favorite Game. Int J Sport Physiol, 12(10), 1396–1403. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0783
Haff, G. G., & Tripplet, N. T. (2016). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, 4th Edition. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001081
Helme, M., Bishop, C., Emmonds, S., & Low, C. (2019). Validity and Reliability of the Rear Foot Elevated Split Squat 5 Repetition Maximum to Determine Unilateral Leg Strength Symmetry. J Strength Con Res, 33(12), 3269–3275. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003378
Hobara, H., Inoue, K., Omuro, K., Muraoka, T., & Kanosue, K. (2011). Determinant of leg stiffness during hopping is frequency-dependent. Euro J Appl Physiol, 111(9), 2195–2201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-1853-z
Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Klatt, M., Faigenbaum, A. D., & Kang, J. (2007). Do Bilateral Power Deficits Influence Direction-Specific Movement Patterns? Res Sports Med, 15(2), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438620701405313
Impellizzeri, F. M., Rampinini, E., Maffiuletti, N., & Marcora, S. M. (2007). A Vertical Jump Force Test for Assessing Bilateral Strength Asymmetry in Athletes. Med Sci Sport Exer, 39(11), 2044–2050. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31814fb55c
Jones, P., Thomas, C., Dos’Santos, T., McMahon, J., & Graham-Smith, P. (2017). The Role of Eccentric Strength in 180° Turns in Female Soccer Players. Sports, 5(2), 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5020042
Kipp, K., Kiely, M. T., & Geiser, C. F. (2016). Reactive Strength Index Modified Is a Valid Measure of Explosiveness in Collegiate Female Volleyball Players. J Strength Con Res, 30(5), 1341–1347. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001226
Koch, A., O’Bryant, H. S., Stone, M. E., Sanborn, K., Proulx, C., Hruby, J., … Stone, M. H. (2003). Effect of Warm-Up on the Standing Broad Jump in Trained and Untrained Men and Women. J Strength Con Res, 17(4), 710.
Kuzmits, F. E., & Adams, A. J. (2008). The NFL Combine: Does It Predict Performance in the National Football League? J Strength Con Res, 22(6), 1721–1727. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e318185f09d
LaPlaca, D. A., & McCullick, B. A. (2020). National Football League Scouting Combine Tests Correlated to National Football League Player Performance. J Strength Con Res, 34(5), 1317–1329. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003479
Lockie, R., Risso, F., Lazar, A., Giuliano, D., Stage, A., Liu, T., … Moreno, M. (2017). Between-Leg Mechanical Differences as Measured by the Bulgarian Split-Squat: Exploring Asymmetries and Relationships with Sprint Acceleration. Sports, 5(3), 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030065
Madruga-Parera, M., Bishop, C., Beato, M., Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A., Gonzalo-Skok, O., & Romero-Rodríguez, D. (2019). Relationship Between Interlimb Asymmetries and Speed and Change of Direction Speed in Youth Handball Players. J Strength Con Res, 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003328
Madruga-Parera, M., Bishop, C., Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A., Beltran-Valls, M. R., Skok, O. G., & Romero-Rodríguez, D. (2020). Interlimb Asymmetries in Youth Tennis Players: Relationships With Performance. J Strength Con Res, 34(10), 2815–2823. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003152
McCurdy K, Langford GA, Cline AL, Doscher M, Hoff R. (2004). The Reliability of 1- and 3Rm Tests of Unilateral Strength in Trained and Untrained Men and Women. J Sports Sci Med.;3(3):190-6. PMID: 24482597; PMCID: PMC3905302.
Peterson, M. D., Alvar, B. A., & Rhea, M. R. (2006). The Contribution of Maximal Force Production to Explosive Movement Among Young Collegiate Athletes. J Strength Con Res, 20(4), 867.
Robbins, D. W. (2012). Relationships Between National Football League Combine Performance Measures. J Strength Con Res, 26(1), 226–231. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e31821d5e1b
Spiteri, T., Nimphius, S., Hart, N. H., Specos, C., Sheppard, J. M., & Newton, R. U. (2014). Contribution of Strength Characteristics to Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes. J Strength Con Res, 28(9), 2415–2423. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000547
Taber, C., Bellon, C., Abbott, H., & Bingham, G. E. (2016). Roles of Maximal Strength and Rate of Force Development in Maximizing Muscular Power. Strength Con J, 38(1), 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1519/ssc.0000000000000193
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.