Motivational differences between athletes at junior and senior level: An analysis of the football, handball, and water polo players
Keywords:Motivation, Sport, Football, Handball, Water polo, Junior, Senior
Research in sport and exercise psychology indicates that motivational factors contribute to exceptional achievement, both in individual and team sports. Therefore, analysing differences between junior and senior athletes in contact ball sports in terms of their motivational differences may be an important information source for the selection process and management of the development of the elite athletes. In this study data on athletes’ motivation was collected via self-assessments. Data was analysed in order to answer the questions regarding the motivational differences of athletes, which might be related to the type of collective ball sport and their competing level related to age. Sample consisted of 316 athletes at junior and 286 athletes at senior level, which were active in one of the three team sports: football, handball, and water polo. They filled in three self-report questionnaires: Self-motivation Inventory – SMI; Sport Attitudes Inventory – SAI; and Task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire - TEOSQ. Results suggest that senior athletes have higher score on self-motivation, motive to achieve power and task goal orientation scales than junior athletes. These findings were replicated in all three sports which were analysed. Besides that, football players have the highest motive to achieve success, motive to achieve power and task goal orientation; water polo players have the most pronounced self-motivation, while handball players show lowest levels of these motives.
FundingUniversity of Zagreb, Croatia
Alispahić, S. (2013). Provjera odnosa teorije samoodređenja i Maslowljeve teorije motivacije u političkom kontekstu Examination of relations between self-determination theory and Maslow's theory of motivation in political context. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Zagreb: University of Zagreb.
Barić, R., Cecić Erpič, S., & Babić, V. (2002). Intrinsic motivation and goal orientation in track-and-field children. Kinesiology, 34(1), 50-60.
Barić, R. (2004). Klima v športu Motivational climate in sport. Unpublished master thesis. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana.
Barić, R. (2007). The relationship of coach's leadership behaviour and his motivational structure with athletes' motivational tendencies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana.
Boyd, M. & Callaghan, J. (1994). Task and ego goal perspectives in organized youth sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25(4), 411-424.
Cervone, D. & Pervin, L.A. (2008). Personality. Theory and research. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Cetinić, J. (2004). Spolne razlike u ciljnoj orijentiranosti košarkaša Gender differences of goal orientations in basketball players. Unpublished graduate thesis. Zagreb: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Kinesiology.
Cox, R.H. (2012). Sport psychology: Concepts and applications (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dabbs, J.M., Jr. (2000). Heroes, rogues and lovers: Outcroppings of testosterone. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dishman, R.K., Ickes, W., & Morgan, W.O. (1980). Self-Motivation and adherence to habitual physical activity. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 115-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1980.tb00697.x
Duda, J.L. (1989). Relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among high school athletes. Journal of Sport and Excersise Psychology, 11, 318-335. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.11.3.318
Duda, J.L., Chi, L., Newton, M., Walling, M.D., & Cately, D. (1995). Task and ego orientation and intrinsic motivation in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 40-63.
Duda, J.L. & Hall, H. (2001). Achievement goal theory in sport: recent extensions and future directions. In R.N. Singer, H.A. Hausenblas & C.M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (pp. 417-444). New York: Wiley.
Finch, L. (2002). Understanding Individual Motivation in Sport. In J.M. Silva III & D.E. Stevens (Eds.), Psychological Foundations of Sport (pp. 66-79). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Horga, S. (2009). Psihologija sporta Sport psychology (2nd ed.). Zagreb: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Kinesiology.
Ingledew, D.K. & Markland, D. (2008). The role of motives in exercise participation. Psychology and Health, 23(7), 807-828. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870440701405704
Larsen, R.J. & Buss, D.M. (2014). Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Malina, R.M. (2010). Early sport specialization: roots, effectiveness, risks. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 9(6), 364-371. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181fe3166
Mallett, C.J. & Hanrahan, S.J. (2004). Elite Athletes: Why does the 'Fire' Burn so Brightly? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 183-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(02)00043-2
Papaioannou, A., Marsh, H.W., & Theodorakis, Y. (2004). A multilevel approach to motivational climate in physical education and sport settings: An individual or a group level construct? Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 90-118. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.26.1.90
Reeve, J.M. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Roberts, G.C. (1992). Motivation in sport and exercise: Conceptual constrains and convergence. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 3-31). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Roberts, B.W., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T.E. (2001). The kids are alright: Growth and stability in personality development from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 4, 670-683. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1240
Ryan, R.M. & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
Tiryaki, Ş., & Gödelek E. (1997). The adaptation of the scale of motivation peculiar to sports for Turkish Sportsmen. 1st International symposium for sports psychology notification booklet, Ankara, Bağırgan Publishing, pp.128-141.
Trninić, M., Trninić, S., & Papić, V. (2009). Development Management Model of Elite Athletes in Team Sports Games. Collegium Antropologicum, 33(2), 363-372.
Trninić, M. (2015). Osobine ličnosti i motivacijske dimenzije kod košarkaša različitih dobnih skupina Personality traits and motivational dimensions among basketball players of different age groups and positions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Split: University of Split.
Trninić, V., Trninić, M., & Penezić, Z. (2016). Personality differences between the players regarding the type of sport and age. Acta Kinesiologica, 10(2), 69-74.
Tušak, M. (1997). Razvoj motivacijskega sistema v športu [The development of motivational system in sport]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana.
Tušak, M., Misja, R., & Vičić, A. (2003). Psihologija ekipnih športov Psychology of team sports. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport.
Weinberg, R.S., Tenenbaum, G., McKenzie, A., Jackson, S., Anshel, M., Grove, R., & Fogarty, G. (2000). Motivation for Youth Participation in Sport and Physical Activity: Relationships to Culture, Self-Reported Activity Levels, and Gender. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 321-346.
Weinberg, R.S. & Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
White, S.A. & Duda, J.L. (1994). The relationship of gender, level of sport involvement and participation motivation to task and ego orientation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25, 4-18.
Willis, J.D. (1982). Three Scales to Measure Competition-Related Motives in Sport. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 338-353. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.4.4.338
Winter, D.G., John, O.P., Stewart, A.J., Klohnen, E.C., & Duncan, L.E. (1998). Traits and Motives: Toward an Integration of Two Traditions in Personality research. Psychological Rewiev, 105(2), 230-250. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.105.2.230
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.