Analysis of sex and age differences in performance of young Canadian freestyle swimmers
Keywords:Swimming speed, Sex difference, Age difference
This study is intended to determine sex and age differences in young Canadian freestyle swimmers aged from ≤10 to 18, for all 6 distances from 50m to 1500m in both short and long course indoor pools. The data set used in the studies is publicly available and categorized into sex/age/course/distance groups during seasons from 2008 to 2019. The sex differences in swimming speed were determined using independent Z-tests (two-sided, unequal SD). The age differences in swimming speed over all ages were analysed using classic one-way ANOVA with subsequent pairwise Tukey-HSD post-hoc tests and Welch’s ANOVA followed by pairwise Games-Howell post-hoc tests. They were then determined using paired two-sample t-tests (two-sided). Young male swimmers outperformed young female swimmers in most groups. Groups with similar performances or no significant differences were in younger age groups (10-year and 11-year). Sex differences increased as age increased, ranging from −0.96% to 13.54%. Sex differences in shorter distances and short course were smaller than in longer distances and long course for ≤12 years and became greater than in longer distances at ≥13 years. Age speed differences decreased as age increased until 17–18-years old, ranging from 12.79% to −0.37%. The performance of female swimmers became stable earlier than that of male swimmers. The age-to-age speed differences of male swimmers were greater than those of female swimmers. These gaps increased from 10–11-year to 13–14-year groups and decreased after that. Age differences in shorter distances and short course were greater than in longer distances and long course. Further studies are required to confirm and extend this research to swimmers at other age groups, in other strokes, and from other countries.
Baumgartner, S., Sousa, C. V., Nikolaidis, P. T., & Knechtle, B. (2020). Can the Performance Gap between Women and Men be Reduced in Ultra-Cycling?. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(7), 2521. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072521
Cheuvront, S. N., Carter, R., Deruisseau, K. C., & Moffatt, R. J. (2005). Running performance differences between men and women:an update. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 35(12), 1017–1024. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535120-00002
Helgerud, J., Ingjer, F., & Strømme, S. B. (1990). Sex differences in performance-matched marathon runners. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 61(5-6), 433–439. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00236064
Knechtle, B., Nikolaidis, P. T., König, S., Rosemann, T., & Rüst, C. A. (2016). Performance trends in master freestyle swimmers aged 25-89 years at the FINA World Championships from 1986 to 2014. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 38(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-016-9880-7
Knechtle, B., Bragazzi, N. L., König, S., Nikolaidis, P. T., Wild, S., Rosemann, T., & Rüst, C. A. (2016). The Age in Swimming of Champions in World Championships (1994⁻2013) and Olympic Games (1992⁻2012): A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 4(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4010017
Knechtle, B., Nikolaidis, P. T., Rosemann, T., & Rüst, C. A. (2016). Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014. The Chinese journal of physiology, 59(5), 247–259. https://doi.org/10.4077/CJP.2016.BAE406
Knechtle, B., Dalamitros, A. A., Barbosa, T. M., Sousa, C. V., Rosemann, T., & Nikolaidis, P. T. (2020). Sex Differences in Swimming Disciplines-Can Women Outperform Men in Swimming?. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(10), E3651. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103651
Koch-Ziegenbein P., Knechtle B., Rüst C.A., Rosemann T., & Lepers R. Differences in swimming speed on short course and long course for female and male breaststroke swimmers: a comparison of swimmers at national and international level. OA Sports Medicine, 1(2):18 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.13172/2053-2040-1-2-910
Lepers R. (2019). Sex Difference in Triathlon Performance. Frontiers in physiology, 10, 973. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00973
Medic, N., Young, B. W., Starkes, J. L., Weir, P. L., & Grove, J. R. (2009). Gender, age, and sport differences in relative age effects among US Masters swimming and track and field athletes. Journal of sports sciences, 27(14), 1535–1544. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903127630
Rüst, C. A., Knechtle, B., & Rosemann, T. (2012). Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men. Open access journal of sports medicine, 3, 189–199. https://doi.org/10.2147/oajsm.s38174
Rüst, C. A., Rosemann, T., & Knechtle, B. (2014). Sex difference in age and performance in elite Swiss freestyle swimmers competing from 50m to 1500m. SpringerPlus, 3, 228. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-228
Senefeld, J. W., Clayburn, A. J., Baker, S. E., Carter, R. E., Johnson, P. W., & Joyner, M. J. (2019). Sex differences in youth elite swimming. PloS one, 14(11), e0225724. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225724
Stark, D., Di Gangi, S., Sousa, C. V., Nikolaidis, P., & Knechtle, B. (2020). Tower Running-Participation, Performance Trends, and Sex Difference. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(6), 1902. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061902
Tanaka, H., & Seals, D. R. (1997). Age and gender interactions in physiological functional capacity: insight from swimming performance. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 82(3), 846–851. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.526
Trewin, C. B., Hopkins, W. G., & Pyne, D. B. (2004). Relationship between world-ranking and Olympic performance of swimmers. Journal of sports sciences, 22(4), 339–345. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410310001641610
Waldvogel, K. J., Nikolaidis, P. T., Di Gangi, S., Rosemann, T., & Knechtle, B. (2019). Women Reduce the Performance Difference to Men with Increasing Age in Ultra-Marathon Running. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(13), 2377. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132377
Wild, S., Rüst, C. A., Rosemann, T., & Knechtle, B. (2014). Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013. BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation, 6, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/2052-1847-6-25
Wolfrum, M., Knechtle, B., Rüst, C. A., Rosemann, T., & Lepers, R. (2013). Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming. BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation, 5(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/2052-1847-5-29
Wolfrum, M., Knechtle, B., Rüst, C. A., Rosemann, T., & Lepers, R. (2013). The effects of course length on freestyle swimming speed in elite female and male swimmers - a comparison of swimmers at national and international level. SpringerPlus, 2, 643. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-643
Wolfrum, M., Rüst, C. A., Rosemann, T., Lepers, R., & Knechtle, B. (2014). The effect of course length on individual medley swimming performance in national and international athletes. Journal of human kinetics, 42, 187–200. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2014-0073
Zingg, M. A., Rüst, C. A., Rosemann, T., Lepers, R., & Knechtle, B. (2014). Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012. BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation, 6(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/2052-1847-6-7
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.