Sex differences in motor performance and anaerobic peak power of Japanese primary school children aged 11 to 12 years
Keywords:Sprint, Maturation, Physical fitness, Strength, Physical education
The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in motor performance and anaerobic peak power in children. Furthermore, the relationship between power-associated variables and motor performance was also examined. Ninety-four Japanese primary school children aged 11 to 12 years volunteered. Grip strength, repeated lateral jumps, 50-m sprint, and standing broad jump were assessed following the guidelines published by the Japanese Ministry of Education and Science. Anaerobic peak power was assessed based on 6 sec sprint cycling with 4% of body mass as the braking load. The absolute peak power and peak power normalised by body mass were calculated as power-associated variables. The correlation analysis revealed that normalised peak power was moderately and strongly correlated with 50-m sprint time in both sexes, indicating the possibility that the sex difference in sprint performance could be derived from the discrepancy in anaerobic peak power. Sex differences were found in normalised peak power, lateral jumps, and 50-m sprint time. However, absolute peak power and standing broad jump did not differ significantly, and the results were not consistent with those of previous studies that examined participants in a different age range. The non-significant results in terms of absolute peak power and standing broad jump distance suggested the notion that sex differences in some variables fluctuate depending on the participants’ age. Therefore, future studies are required to investigate the sex differences in motor performance and anaerobic peak power in children of different age groups.
FundingOsaka University of Economics
Alemdaroğlu, U. (2012). The relationship between muscle strength, anaerobic performance, agility, sprint ability and vertical jump performance in professional basketball players. Journal of human kinetics, 31, 149-158. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0016-6
Aziz, A. R., & Chuan, T. E. H. (2004). Correlation between Tests of Running Repeated Sprint Ability and Anaerobic Capacity by Wingate Cycling in Multi-Sprint Sports Athletes. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 16(1), 14-22.
Chelly, M. S., Fathloun, M., Cherif, N., Amar, M. B., Tabka, Z., & Van Praagh, E. (2009). Effects of a back squat training program on leg power, jump, and sprint performances in junior soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2241-2249. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181b86c40
Chia, Y. (2003). Wingate anaerobic test power of boys and girls expressed in relation to lower limb muscle mass as determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Advances in exercise and sports physiology, 9(2), 55-59.
Eisenmann, J., & Malina, R. (2003). Age-and sex-associated variation in neuromuscular capacities of adolescent distance runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(7), 551-557. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000101845
Hopkins W, Marshall S, Batterham A, & Hanin J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc.; 41(1): 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31818cb278
Kale M, Asçi A, Bayrak C, Açikada C. (2009). Relationships among jumping performances and sprint parameters during maximum speed phase in sprinters. J Strength Cond Res.; 23(8): 2272-2279. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181b3e182
Kanehisa, H., Ikegawa, S., Tsunoda, N., & Fukunaga, T. (1994). Strength and cross-sectional area of knee extensor muscles in children. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 68(5), 402-405. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00843736
Linossier, M. T., Dormois, D., Geyssant, A., & Denis, C. (1997). Performance and fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle during short sprint training and detraining on a cycle ergometer. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 75(6), 491-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050194
Malina, R. M., Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Human kinetics. pp: 259-261.
Malina, R. M., Geithner, C. A., O’Brien, R., & Tan, S. K. (2005). Sex differences in the motor performances of elite young divers. Ital J Sport Sci, 12, 18-23.
Malina, R., Sławinska, T., Ignasiak, Z., Rożek, K., Kochan, K., Domaradzki, J., & Fugiel, J. (2010). Sex differences in growth and performance of track and field athletes 11-15 years. Journal of Human Kinetics, 24, 79-85. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-010-0023-4
Nikolaidis, P. (2009). Gender differences in anaerobic power in physical education and sport science students. J Phys Ed Sport, 24(3), 140-145.
Perez-Gomez, J., Rodriguez, G. V., Ara, I., Olmedillas, H., Chavarren, J., González-Henriquez, J. J., ... & Calbet, J. A. (2008). Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender differences?. European journal of applied physiology, 102(6), 685-694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0648-8
Suwa, S., Tachibana, K., Maesaka, H., Tanaka, T., & Yokoya, S. (1992). Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity for Japanese children from birth to maturity. Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, 1(1), 5-13. https://doi.org/10.1297/cpe.1.5
Weber, C. L., Chia, M., & Inbar, O. (2006). Gender differences in anaerobic power of the arms and legs-a scaling issue. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(1), 129. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000179902.31527.2c
Yoshimoto, T., Takai, Y., Fukunaga, Y., Fujita, E., Kanehisa, H., & Yamamoto, M. (2014). Effect of maturation on sprint and jump performances in adolescent boys. Gazz Med Ital, 173, 265-272.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.