Coaches’ controlling interpersonal style and frustration of basic psychological needs in adolescent judokas




Interpersonal control, Psychological need thwarting, Judo


The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships established between the different factors that make up coaches’ controlling interpersonal style and frustration of basic psychological needs, as well as to identify the differences that may exist in terms of gender and training hours, and whether the latter may trigger these variables in adolescent judokas. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS) (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2010), in its Spanish version (Castillo et al., 2014), was administered, as well as the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale (PNTS) (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, Ryan & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2011), also in its Spanish version (Sicilia, Ferriz & Sáenz-Álvarez, 2013). The sample comprised 86 adolescent judokas, who had a federation licence and participated in regional competitions (M = 14.13; SD = 1.38). Descriptive and correlation analyses of all variables were performed. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were carried out, respectively, to analyse the differences in gender and training hours. The results showed a positive and significant correlation between all study variables. In addition, significant differences were found between genders in the control variable of use of rewards, and in the frustration variable of the basic psychological need of competence, depending on the judokas’ training hours. These results suggest that controlling interpersonal styles influence the frustration of basic psychological needs of adolescent judokas, according to their gender or training hours.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguirre, H. B., Tristán, J. L., López, J. M., Tomás, I. & Zamarripa, J. (2016). Estilos interpersonales del entrenador, frustración de las necesidades psicológicas básicas y el burnout: un análisis longitudinal en futbolistas. Retos, 30, 132-137.

Balaguer, I., González, L., Fabra, P., Castillo, I., Juan Mercé, J., Duda, J. (2012). Coaches' interpersonal style, basic psychological needs and the well- and ill-being of young soccer players: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 1619-1629.

Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N. & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The controlling interpersonal style in a coaching context: Development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 193-216.

Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 75-102.

Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., Bosch J. A. & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Self-Determination Theory and Diminished Functioning: The Role of Interpersonal Control and Psychological Need Thwarting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37(11) 1459-1473.

Biron, S. (2008). Competición Versus Tradición en el Judo Kodokan. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 3(2), 28-37.

Cano, F., Montero, C., Cervelló, E. & Moreno-Murcia, J. A. (2018) Influencia del estilo interpersonal del entrenador sobre la motivación en deportistas de salvamento y socorrismo. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 18(1), 173-182.

Cantú-Berrueto, A., Castillo, I., López-Walle, J., Tristán, J. & Balaguer, I. (2016). Estilo interpersonal del entrenador, necesidades psicológicas básicas y motivación: un estudio en futbolistas universitarios mexicanos. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 11(2), 263-270.

Castillo, I., González, L., Fabra, P., Mercé, J. & Balaguer, I. (2012). Controlling coach interpersonal style, basic psychological need thwarting, and burnout in young soccer players. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte 12, 143-146.

Castillo, I., Tomás, I., Ntoumanis, N., Bartholomew, K., Duda, L. & Balaguer, I. (2014). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale in the sport context. Psicothema, 26(3), 409-414.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Self-determination research: reflections and future direction. Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Delrue, J., Soenens, B., Morbee, S., Vansteenkiste, M. & Haerens, L. (2019). Do athletes' responses to coach autonomy support and control depend on the situation and athletes' personal motivation? Psychology of sport and exercise, 43, 321-332.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis, (5th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mars, L., Castillo, I., Lopez-Wane, J. & Balaguer, I. (2017). Controlling coach style, basic psychological need thwarting and ill-being in soccer players. Revista de psicologia del deporte, 26, 119-124.

Matosic, D., Ntoumanis, N., Boardley, I. D. & Sedikides, C. (2020). Narcissism, beliefs about controlling interpersonal style, and moral disengagement in sport coaches. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(5), 592-606.

Morales-Sánchez, V., Crespillo-Jurado, M., Jiménez-López, D., Morillo-Baro, J. P., Hernández-Mendo, A. & Reigal, R. E. (2020). Relationships between Controlling Interpersonal Coaching Style, Basic Psychological Need Thwarting, and Burnout, in Adolescent Soccer Players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1-13.

Morbee, S., Vansteenkiste, M., Aelterman, N. & Haerens, .L (2020). Why Do Sport Coaches Adopt a Controlling Coaching Style? The Role of an Evaluative Context and Psychological Need Frustration. Sport Psychologist, (34)2, 89-98.

Ntoumanis, N., Guerrero, M. D., Gadeke, C. & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2018). Do exerciser weight status and perceived motivation predict instructors' motivation and beliefs about the exerciser? A test of motivation contagion effects. Body Image, 26, 10-18.

Pineda-Espejel, H.A., Morquecho-Sánchez, R., Alarcón, E. (2020). Estilo interpersonal del entrenador, competencia, motivación, y ansiedad precompetitiva en deportistas de alto rendimiento. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 20(1), 10-24.

Pulido, S., Fuentes, J. P., & Jiménez, R. (2017). Análisis de las relaciones entre variables motivacionales y ansiedad en judocas competidores. Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity, 3(3), 436-453.

Pulido, S., Fuentes, J. P. y de la Vega, R. (2019). Ansiedad competitiva en judokas cadetes: diferencias en género y categoría de peso. Journal of Sport Pedagogy and Research, 5(1), 21-26.

Pulido, J. J., García-Calvo, T., Leo, F. M., Figueiredo, A. J., Sarmento, H., & Sánchez-Oliva, D. (2020). Perceived coach interpersonal style and basic psychological needs as antecedents of athlete-perceived coaching competency and satisfaction with the coach: A multi-level analysis. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 9(1), 16–28.

Pulido, S., de la Vega, R. & Fuentes, J. P. (2020). Motivación de logro en deportistas de combate de élite: Evaluación objetiva computerizada. Journal of Sport Psychology, (29)1, 75-82.

Quested, E., Ntoumanis, N., Viladrich, C., Haug, E., Ommundsen, Y., Van Hoye, A. & Duda, J.L. (2013). Intentions to drop-out of youth soccer: A test of the basic needs theory among European youth from five countries. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 395-407.

Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 159-175.

Reeve, J., Jang, H. R. & Jang, H. (2018). Personality-based antecedents of teachers' autonomy-supportive and controlling motivating styles. Learning and Individual Differences, 62, 12-22.

Robles, A., Abad, M. T., Robles, J. & Giménez, F. J. (2019). Factores que influyen en el proceso de formación de los judokas olímpicos. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 19(74), 259-276.

Rodrigues, F., Pelletier, L., Neiva, H. P., Teixeira, D. S., Cid, L. & Monteiro, D. (2019). Initial validation of the Portuguese version of the Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ & IBQ-Self) in the context of exercise: Measurement invariance and latent mean differences. Current Psychology, 1-12.

Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E.L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Sicilia, A., Ferriz, R. & Sáenz-Álvarez, P. (2013). Validación española de la escala de frustración de las necesidades psicológicas (EFNP) en el ejercicio físico Psychology, Society, & Education, 5(1), 1-19.

Valero-Valenzuela, A. & Manzano-Sánchez, D. (2019). Interpersonal Style of Coaching, Motivational Profiles and the Intention to be Physically Active in Young Athletes. Studia Psychologica, (61)2, 110-119.


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Pulido, S., de la Vega, R., & Fuentes, J. P. (2022). Coaches’ controlling interpersonal style and frustration of basic psychological needs in adolescent judokas. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 17(4), 839–848.