Psychophysiological responses to competition among university swimmers


  • Portia Heidi Mendoza Balite University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines
  • Percival Henry Mendoza Balite University of the Philippines – Los Baños, Philippines
  • Marcus Jarwin Ani Manalo University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines
  • Jeffrey Pagaduan University of Tasmania – Launceston Campus, Australia



Anticipatory cortisol, Anxiety, Athletic performance, Swimmers


This study investigated anticipatory cortisol and pre-competitive anxiety of swimmers before competition. Fifteen university swimmers volunteered to participate in the study. Salivary cortisol and Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R) were collected six days (6d) and two hours (2h) before competition. Results revealed higher somatic anxiety 2h compared to 6d prior to competition. No differences were observed in cortisol, cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence. Thus, somatic anxiety of swimmers increase in response to competition.


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How to Cite

Balite, P. H. M., Balite, P. H. M., Manalo, M. J. A., & Pagaduan, J. (2022). Psychophysiological responses to competition among university swimmers. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 17(4), 796–801.



Sport Medicine, Nutrition & Health