Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

The effect of self-selected music on endurance running capacity and performance in a mentally fatigued state

Hui Kwan Nicholas Lam, Harry Middleton, Shaun M. Phillips

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2022.174.16

Abstract

We investigated the effects of listening to self-selected music on intermittent running capacity (study 1) and 5 km time-trial (TT) performance (study 2) in a mentally fatigued state. In study 1, nine physically active males performed a 30-minute incongruent Stroop test (IST) followed by the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1) with (MF+MUSIC) and without (MFONLY) music. They also completed a baseline trial (BL). Study 2 repeated these trials with nine recreational runners. Mental fatigue (MF) showed large increases following IST in both studies (dunb = 1.44 – 2.0). Intermittent running capacity was moderately greater in MF+MUSIC (564 ± 127 m; dunb = 0.52) and BL (551 ± 106 m; dunb = 0.51) vs. MFONLY (496 ± 112 m). Time-trial performance showed small improvements in MF+MUSIC (23.1 ± 2.4 min; dunb = 0.28) and BL (23.4 ± 3.5 min; dunb = 0.20) vs. MFONLY (24.1 ± 3.2 min). Differences in ratings of perceived exertion between trials were trivial to small in both studies (dunb = 0-0.47). Listening to self-selected music in a mentally fatigued state negates the negative impact of MF on endurance running capacity and performance, potentially due to altered perception of effort when listening to music.


Keywords

Cognitive load; Mental fatigue; Running performance; Running capacity; Mental exertion; Perceived exertion; Sports performance

References

Algina, J., & Keselman, J. (2003). Approximate confidence intervals for effect sizes. Educ Psychol Meas, 63, 537-553. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164403256358

Bangsbo, J., Iaia, F. M., & Krustrup, P. (2008). The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test : a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med, 38(1), 37-51. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838010-00004

Brandt, R., Herrero, D., Massetti, T., Crocetta, B., Guarnieri, R., Monteiro, C., . . . Andrade, A. (2016). The Brunel Mood Scale Rating in Mental Health for Physically Active and Apparently Healthy Populations. Health, 8, 125-132. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2016.82015

Buhmann, J., Moens, B., Van Dyck, E., Dotov, D., & Leman, M. (2018). Optimizing beat synchronized running to music. PLoS One, 13(12), e0208702. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208702

Calin-Jageman, R., & Cumming, G. (2019). The new statistics for better science: ask how much, how uncertain, and what else is known. Am Stat, 73(73), 271-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2018.1518266

Chanda, M. L., & Levitin, D. J. (2013). The neurochemistry of music. Trends Cogn Sci, 17(4), 179-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.02.007

Clark, I., Goulding, R., DiMenna, F., Bailey, S., Jones, M., Fulford, J., . . . Vanhatalo, A. (2019). Time-trial performance is not impaired in either competitive athletes or untrained individuals following a prolonged cognitive task. Eur J Appl Physiol, 119, 149-161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-4009-6

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychol Bull, 112(1), 155-159. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.112.1.155

Cumming, G. (2012). Understanding The New Statistics: Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Meta-Analysis. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203807002

Driller, M., Brophy-Williams, N., & Walker, A. (2017). The reliability of a 5 km run test on a motorized treadmill. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci, 21(3), 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2016.1264402

Dyer, B., & McKune, A. (2013). Effects of music tempo on performance, psychological, and physiological variables during 20 km cycling in well-trained cyclists. Percept Mot Skills, 117, 484-497. https://doi.org/10.2466/29.22.PMS.117x24z8

Hutchinson, J. C., & Karageorghis, C. I. (2013). Moderating influence of dominant attentional style and exercise intensity on responses to asynchronous music. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 35(6), 625-643. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.35.6.625

Karageorghis, C. I., Mouzourides, D. A., Priest, D. L., Sasso, T. A., Morrish, D. J., & Walley, C. J. (2009). Psychophysical and ergogenic effects of synchronous music during treadmill walking. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 31(1), 18-36. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.31.1.18

Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. L. (2012a). Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part I). Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol, 5(1), 44-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2011.631026

Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. L. (2012b). Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part II). Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol, 5(1), 67-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2011.631027

Karageorghis, C. I., Priest, D. L., Terry, P. C., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Lane, A. M. (2006). Redesign and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise: the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2. J Sports Sci, 24(8), 899-909. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500298107

Lakens, D. (2013). Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: a practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Front Psychol, 4, 863. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00863

Lee, K. A., Hicks, G., & Nino-Murcia, G. (1991). Validity and reliability of a scale to assess fatigue. Psychiatry Res, 36(3), 291-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(91)90027-M

Marcora, S. M., Staiano, W., & Manning, V. (2009). Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985), 106(3), 857-864. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91324.2008

Martin, K., Meeusen, R., Thompson, K. G., Keegan, R., & Rattray, B. (2018). Mental Fatigue Impairs Endurance Performance: A Physiological Explanation. Sports Med, 48(9), 2041-2051. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0946-9

Martin, K., Staiano, W., Menaspa, P., Hennessey, T., Marcora, S., Keegan, R., . . . Rattray, B. (2016). Superior Inhibitory Control and Resistance to Mental Fatigue in Professional Road Cyclists. PLoS One, 11(7), e0159907. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159907

Martin, K., Thompson, K., Keegan, R., Ball, N., & Rattray, B. (2015). Mental fatigue does not affect maximal anaerobic exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol, 115, 715-725. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-3052-1

Moss, S., Enright, K., & Cushman, S. (2018). The influence of music genre on explosive power, repetitions to failure and mood responses during resistance exercise. Psychol Sport Exerc, 37, 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.05.002

Nakamura, P. M., Pereira, G., Papini, C. B., Nakamura, F. Y., & Kokubun, E. (2010). Effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on continuous cycling exercise performance. Percept Mot Skills, 110(1), 257-264. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.110.1.257-264

Pageaux, B., Lepers, R., Dietz, K. C., & Marcora, S. M. (2014). Response inhibition impairs subsequent self-paced endurance performance. Eur J Appl Physiol, 114(5), 1095-1105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-2838-5

Pageaux, B., Marcora, S., Rozand, V., & Lepers, R. (2015). Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise. Front Hum Neurosci, 9, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00067

Scherr, J., Wolfarth, B., Christle, J., Pressler, A., Wagenfeil, S., & Halle, M. (2013). Associations between Borg's rating of perceived exertion and physiological measures of exercise intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol, 113, 147-155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2421-x

Schmitz, B., Pfeifer, C., Kreitz, K., Borowski, M., Faldum, A., & Brand, S. M. (2018). The Yo-Yo Intermittent Tests: A Systematic Review and Structured Compendium of Test Results. Front Physiol, 9, 870. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00870

Smith, M. R., Coutts, A. J., Merlini, M., Deprez, D., Lenoir, M., & Marcora, S. M. (2016). Mental Fatigue Impairs Soccer-Specific Physical and Technical Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 48(2), 267-276. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000762

Smith, M. R., Marcora, S. M., & Coutts, A. J. (2015). Mental Fatigue Impairs Intermittent Running Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47(8), 1682-1690. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000592

Stork, M. J., Kwan, M. Y., Gibala, M. J., & Martin Ginis, K. A. (2015). Music enhances performance and perceived enjoyment of sprint interval exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47(5), 1052-1060. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000494

Terry, P., Karageorghis, C. I., Saha, A., & D'auria, S. (2011). Effects of synchronous music on treadmill running among elite triathletes. J Sci Med Sport, 15, 52-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.06.003

Thomas, A., Dawson, B., & Goodman, C. (2006). The yo-yo test: reliability and association with a 20-m shuttle run and VO(2max). Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 1(2), 137-149. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.1.2.137

Thompson, B. (2007). Effect sizes, confidence intervals, and confidence intervals for effect sizes. Psychol Schools, 44(5), 423-432. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20234

Van Cutsem, J., Marcora, S., De Pauw, K., Bailey, S., Meeusen, R., & Roelands, B. (2017). The Effects of Mental Fatigue on Physical Performance: A Systematic Review. Sports Med, 47(8), 1569-1588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0672-0

Wasserstein, R., Schirm, A., & Lazar, N. (2019). Moving to a World Beyond "p < 0.05". Am Stat, 73, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2019.1583913

Williamson, J. W., McColl, R., Mathews, D., Mitchell, J. H., Raven, P. B., & Morgan, W. P. (2001). Hypnotic manipulation of effort sense during dynamic exercise: cardiovascular responses and brain activation. J Appl Physiol (1985), 90(4), 1392-1399. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2001.90.4.1392




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2022.174.16





Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.