Changes in vertical jump performance and body composition before and after COVID-19 lockdown
Keywords:COVID-19, Vertical jump, Wushu, Martial arts, Performance analysis of sport
AbstractThis study aimed to determine the effects of a 16-week COVID-19 lockdown on body composition and vertical jump performance. Thirteen martial artists participated in this study. Participants were tested at: 1) pre-lockdown (pre), 2) post-lockdown (post), 3) two-weeks-post-lockdown (post+2), and 4) four-weeks-post-lockdown (post+4). Repeated-measures-ANOVAs were conducted with post-hoc analyses. Differences were observed in vertical jump height (VJH) (10.33%), peak velocity (PV) (3.10%), reactive-strength-index-modified (RSImod) (13.8%), and peak-propulsive-power (PPP) (6.00%) from pre-to-post. There as an increase from post-to-post+2 in VJ (13.06%), PV (4.12%), RSImod (14.0%), and PPP (4.66%). There was an increase from post to post+2 in VJH (10.8%), PV (3.1%), RSImod (14.0%), and PPP (3.0%). Fat mass (FM) and BF% increased from pre to post (13% and 11%, respectively) and decreased from post to post+4 (8% and 11%, respectively); fat-free mass (FFM) decreased from pre-to-post (11%) and decreased from post-to-post+4 (8%). There were moderate associations (rmc = 0.42-0.47) between FFM and VJH, FMM and PPP, FFM and PV, BF% and PV, and FM and PV. While the lockdown resulted in a significant decrease in vertical jump performance and increases in BF and FM, participant’s performance returned to pre-lockdown levels after only 2-4 weeks of post-lockdown training by decreasing BF, FM, and increasing FFM.
Abidin, N. Z., & Adam, M. B. (2013). Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes. Malays J Med Sci, 20(1), 39-45.
Bakdash, J. Z., & Marusich, L. R. (2017). Repeated Measures Correlation [Methods]. Front Psychol, 8(456), 456. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00456
Brown, N., Bubeck, D., Haeufle, D. F. B., Weickenmeier, J., Kuhl, E., Alt, W., & Schmitt, S. (2017). Weekly Time Course of Neuro-Muscular Adaptation to Intensive Strength Training. Front Physiol, 8, 329. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00329
Cheah, B. C., Loh, T. C., Tan, C. H. E., & Beaven, C. M. (2016). Comparison of eccentric utilization ratio of elite karate (kata) with elite Wushu athletes. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 11(2s), 22-23. https://doi.org/10.18002/rama.v11i2s.4153
Choi, C., & Bum, C. H. (2020). Changes in the Type of Sports Activity Due to COVID-19: Hypochondriasis and the Intention of Continuous Participation in Sports. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(13), 4871. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134871
Filimonov, V., Koptsev, K. N., Husyanov, Z. M., & Nazarov, S. (1985). Boxing: Means of increasing strength of the punch. National Strength & Conditioning Association Journal, 7, 65.
Huang, H. C., Wu, W. L., Chang, Y. K., & Chu, I. H. (2018). Physical fitness characteristics of adolescent wushu athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 58(4), 399-406. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06748-7
Joo, C. H. (2018). The effects of short term detraining and retraining on physical fitness in elite soccer players. PLoS One, 13(5), e0196212. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196212
Kannas, T. M., Amiridis, I. G., Arabatzi, F., Katis, A., & Kellis, E. (2015). Changes in specific jumping performance after detraining period. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 55(10), 1150-1156.
Lenetsky, S., Harris, N., & Brughelli, M. (2013). Assessment and Contributors of Punching Forces in Combat Sports Athletes: Implications for Strength and Conditioning. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 35, Q 7. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0b013e31828b6c12
Löllgen, H., Bachl, N., Papadopoulou, T., Shafik, A., Holloway, G., Vonbank, K., . . . Pitsiladis, Y. P. (2020). Recommendations for return to sport during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 6(1), e000858. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000858
Loturco, I., Artioli, G. G., Kobal, R., Gil, S., & Franchini, E. (2014). Predicting punching acceleration from selected strength and power variables in elite karate athletes: a multiple regression analysis. (1533-4287 (Electronic)). https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000329
Loturco, I., Kobal, R., Kitamura, K., Cal Abad, C. C., Faust, B., Almeida, L., & Pereira, L. A. (2017). Mixed Training Methods: Effects of Combining Resisted Sprints or Plyometrics with Optimum Power Loads on Sprint and Agility Performance in Professional Soccer Players. Front Physiol, 8, 1034. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.01034
Loturco, I., Pereira, L. A., Kobal, R., Fernandes, V., Reis, V. P., Romano, F., . . . McGuigan, M. (2019). Transference Effect of Short-Term Optimum Power Load Training on the Punching Impact of Elite Boxers, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: September 2021 - Volume 35 - Issue 9 - p 2373-2378. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003165
McBride, J. M., Kirby, T. J., Haines, T. L., & Skinner, J. (2010). Relationship between relative net vertical impulse and jump height in jump squats performed to various squat depths and with various loads. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 5(4), 484-496. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.4.484
McLester, C. N., Nickerson, B. S., Kliszczewicz, B. M., & McLester, J. R. (2020). Reliability and Agreement of Various InBody Body Composition Analyzers as Compared to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Healthy Men and Women. J Clin Densitom, 23(3), 443-450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2018.10.008
McMahon, J., Suchomel, T., Lake, J. P., & Comfort, P. (2018). Understanding the key phases of the countermovement jump force-time curve. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000375
Metzl, J. D., McElheny, K., Robinson, J. N., Scott, D. A., Sutton, K. M., & Toresdahl, B. G. (2020). Considerations for Return to Exercise Following Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 in the Recreational Athlete. HSS J, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11420-020-09777-1
Nikolaidis, P. (2014). Age-related differences in countermovement vertical jump in soccer players 8-31 years old: the role of fat-free mass. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2(2), 60-64. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajssm-2-2-1
Nuzzo, J. L., McBride, J. M., Cormie, P., & McCaulley, G. O. (2008). Relationship between Countermovement Jump Performance and Multijoint Isometric and Dynamic Tests of Strength. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 22(3), 699-707. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d5eda
Perez-Castilla, A., Rojas, F. J., Gomez-Martinez, F., & Garcia-Ramos, A. (2019). Vertical jump performance is affected by the velocity and depth of the countermovement. Sports Biomech, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2019.1641545
Psilander, N., Eftestol, E., Cumming, K. T., Juvkam, I., Ekblom, M. M., Sunding, K., . . . Gundersen, K. (2019). Effects of training, detraining, and retraining on strength, hypertrophy, and myonuclear number in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985), 126(6), 1636-1645. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00917.2018
Spyrou, K., Alcaraz, P. E., Marin-Cascales, E., Herrero-Carrasco, R., Cohen, D. D., Calleja-Gonzalez, J., . . . Freitas, T. T. (2021). Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Neuromuscular Performance and Body Composition in Elite Futsal Players. J Strength Cond Res. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000004028
Suarez-Arrones, L., Lara-Lopez, P., Maldonado, R., Torreno, N., De Hoyo, M., Nakamura, F. Y., . . . Mendez-Villanueva, A. (2019). The effects of detraining and retraining periods on fat-mass and fat-free mass in elite male soccer players. PeerJ, 7, e7466. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7466
Tan, E. C., Beaven, C. M., Li, C. T. C., McGuigan, M. R., & Cronin, J. B. Srength and power profile of world class wushu taolu athletes.
Tan, E. C., Vallejo, F. T., & Beaven, C. M. Force and velocity profiling of world class taolu wushu athletes.
Tan, E. C. H. Countermovement jump characteristics of elite wushu athletes.
Turner, A., Baker, E., & Miller, S. (2011). Increasing the Impact Force of the Rear Hand Punch. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 33(6), 2-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0b013e318232fdcb
Wong, A. Y., Ling, S. K., Louie, L. H., Law, G. Y., So, R. C., Lee, D. C., . . . Yung, P. S. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sports and exercise. Asia Pac J Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Technol, 22, 39-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asmart.2020.07.006
Woods, J. A., Hutchinson, N. T., Powers, S. K., Roberts, W. O., Gomez-Cabrera, M. C., Radak, Z., . . . Ji, L. L. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and physical activity. Sports Medicine and Health Science, 2(2), 55-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smhs.2020.05.006
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.