The effect of the United Nations resolution for Olympic Truce on peace based on functionalism
Keywords:United Nations, UN resolutions, Olympic truce, Peace, Functionalism
The purpose of the current study is to identify if the UN resolution for Olympic Truce affects peace around the period of the Olympic Games based on functionalism. Methodologically, this study uses a diverse case technique and compares the two following cases: the first case is the Olympic Games, which did not have the UN resolution for Olympic Truce (The 1988 Seoul Summer Olympics), while the other is the Olympic Games which had the UN resolution for Olympic Truce (The 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics). This study determines, firstly, that functional international organizations can actualize their common values (i.e., peace and human rights) and establish world order by cooperating with multiple international organizations, which is more effective than one organization behaving independently. Secondly, through the results, we have confirmed that sports can be an effective mediator in making the world peaceful with unanimous support from the international society.
Adams, K. R. (2013). Structural realism: The imperialism of great power. In J. Sterling-Folker (Eds.), Making Sense of International Relations Theory (2nd ed.) (pp. 21-46). Rienner.
Alexander, K. (2009). Economic sanctions. Palgrave. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230227286
Bates, M. (2010). Olympic and Paralympic games 2012: Olympic truce. UK Parliament. Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://hansard.parliament.uk/Lords/2010-12-15/debates/10121533000862/OlympicAndParalympicGames2012OlympicTruce
Bennett, C. J. (1991), What is policy convergence and what causes it? British Journal of Political Science. 21(2), 215-233. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400006116
Berlinger, J. & Seo, Y. (2018). North and South Korea commit to era of no war. CNN. Retrieved November, 10, 2019, from https://www.cnn.com/2018/09/18/asia/north-korea-south-korea-summit-intl/index.html
Bevir, M. (2007). Encyclopedia of governance. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412952613
Burleson, C. (2012). The ancient Olympic truce in modern-day peacekeeping: Revisiting Ekecheiria. Sport in Society, 15(6), 798-813. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2012.708282
Cárdenas, A. (2016). Sport and peace-building in divided societies: A case study on Colombia and Northern Ireland. Peace and Conflict Studies, 23(2), 4.
Carswell, A. J. (2013). Unblocking the UN security council: The uniting for peace resolution. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 18(3), 453-480. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krt016
Cha, V. D. (2002). Hawk engagement and preventive defense on the Korean Peninsula. International Security, 27(1), 40-78. https://doi.org/10.1162/016228802320231226
Ching, N., & Seldin, J. (2020). US military dismisses threat from latest North Korean missile test. Voice of America. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://www.voanews.com/east-asia-pacific/us-military-dismisses-threat-latest-north-korean-missile-test
Choe, S., & Sanger, D. E. (2019). Hours after agreeing to resume talks, North Korea launches missile. The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/01/world/asia/us-north-korea-nuclear-talks.html
Crossman, J., & Lappage, R. (1992). Canadian athletes' perceptions of the 1980 Olympic boycott. Sociology of Sport Journal, 9(4), 354-371. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.9.4.354
Dahlby, T. (1981). Award of 1988 Olympics boosts S. Korea's effort for political security. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1981/10/04/award-of-1988-olympics-boosts-s-koreas-effort-for-political-security/2db0f29f-29cd-4581-8771-2f08c225181f/?utm_term=.a8390fdf5557
Diehl, P. F. (1993). Institutional alternatives to traditional UN peacekeeping: An assessment of regional and multinational options. Armed Forces & Society, 19(2), 209-230. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X9301900204
Diehl, F., Reifschneider, J., & Hensel, P. R. (1996). United Nations intervention and recurring conflict. International Organization, 50(4), 683-700. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300033555
Easley, L. (2017). From strategic patience to strategic uncertainty: Trump, North Korea, and South Korea's New President. World Affairs, 180(2), 7-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/0043820017721361
Findling, J. E., & Pelle, K. D. (1996). Historical dictionary of the modern Olympic movement. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Finnane, M. (2015). The Munich Olympics massacre and the development of counter-terrorism in Australia. Intelligence and National Security, 30(6), 817-836. https://doi.org/10.1080/02684527.2014.882680
George, S., Yeung, J., Griffiths, J., Liptak, K., & Berlinger, J. (2019). DMZ: Donald Trump steps into North Korea with Kim Jong Un. CNN. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from https://www.cnn.com/politics/live-news/trump-dmz-kim-live-intl-hnk/h_8f4b268b1827c8c3d43909e24456f216
Gerring, J. (2004). What is a case study and what is it good for? American political science review, 98(2), 341-354. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055404001182
Gerring, J. (2017). Case study research: Principles and practices (2ed ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316848593
Giatsis, S., Ziakas, V., Zygouri, C., & Giatsi, A. (2004). Sport and the Olympic games in the global post-cold war Era (1989-nowadays). Journal of Olympic History, 12(2), 35-45.
Glaser, C. L. (2010). Rational theory of international politics: the logic of competition and cooperation. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400835133
Grix, J. (2013). Sport politics and the Olympics. Political Studies Review, 11(1), 15-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/1478-9302.12001
Haas, E. B. (2008). Beyond the nation state: Functionalism and international organization. ECPR Press.
Haftel, Y. Z. (2007). Designing for peace: regional integration arrangements, institutional variation, and militarized interstate disputes. International Organization, 61(1), 217-237. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818307070063
Hanhimäki, J. M. (2015). The United Nations: A very short introduction. Oxford University. https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780190222703.001.0001
Hoberman, J. (1995). Toward a theory of Olympic internationalism. Journal of Sport History, 22 (1), 1-37.
Hong, S. (2017). Trump is the right leader to achieve peace with North Korea. New Perspectives Quarterly, 34(3): 13-18. https://doi.org/10.1111/npqu.12087
Hosli, M. O., & Dörfler, T. (2019). Why is change so slow? Assessing prospects for United Nations Security Council reform. Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 22(1), 35-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/17487870.2017.1305903
Hufbauer, G. C., Schott, J. J., & Elliott, K. A. (1990). Economic sanctions reconsidered: History and current policy. Peterson Institute.
IOC. (2019). Olympic Charter. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved from https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/General/EN-Olympic-Charter.pdf
Jervis, R. (1999). Realism, neoliberalism, and cooperation: understanding the debate. International Security, 24(1), 42-63. https://doi.org/10.1162/016228899560040
Kalantar, N. (2019). The limitations and capabilities of the United Nations in modern conflict. E-International Relations. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.e-ir.info/2019/07/10/the-limitations-and-capabilities-of-the-united-nations-in-modern-conflict/comment-page-1/
Keohane, R. O. (2005). After hegemony: Cooperation and discord in the world political economy. Princeton university press.
Krasner, S. (1983). International regimes. Cornell University Press.
Krüger, A., & Murray, W. (2010). The Nazi Olympics: Sport, politics, and appeasement in the 1930s. University of Illinois Press.
Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building peace: Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. United States Institute of Peace.
Lennartz, K. (2002). The 2nd international Olympic Games in Athens 1906. Journal of Olympic history, 10, 3-24.
Lagoni, R. (1995). Resolution, declaration, decision. United Nations: Law, Policies and Practice, 2, 1081-1091.
Lee, J. W. (2015). Examining Korean nationalisms, identities, and politics through sport. Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science, 4(3), 179-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/21640599.2016.1139533
Lee, J. W. (2017). Do the scale and scope of the event matter? The Asian Games and the relations between North and South Korea. Sport in Society, 20(3), 369-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2015.1088723
Lee, Y. G. (2014). Bukhan eui dobal sarye boonseok [A case study on the provocations by NK]. Military History, 91, 63-110.
Loland, S., & Selliaas. A. (2009). The Olympic truce-the ideal and the reality. In K. Georgiadis, & A, Syrigos (Eds.), Olympic Truce: Sport as a platform for peace (pp. 57-69). The International Olympic Truce Centre.
MacFarlane, S. N., & Khong, Y. F. (2006). Human security and the UN: A critical history. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Mackinlay, J., & Chopra, J. (1997). Second generation multinational operations. Washington Quarterly, 15(3), 113-131. https://doi.org/10.1080/01636609209550110
Mearsheimer, J. (1994). The false promise of international institutions. International Security, 19(3), 5-49. https://doi.org/10.2307/2539078
Moore Jr, J. A., & Pubantz, J. (2017). The new United Nations: International organization in the twenty-first century. Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781317288435
Ministry of National Defense. (2018). The 2018 defense white paper. Republic of Korea: Ministry of National Defense. Retrieved November 25, 2019, from http://www.mnd.go.kr/user/mnd/upload/pblictn/PBLICTNEBOOK_201907110548253080.pdf
Ministry of National Defense. (2020). The 2020 defense white paper. Republic of Korea: Ministry of National Defense. Retrieved May 31, 2021, from https://www.mnd.go.kr/user/mnd/upload/pblictn/PBLICTNEBOOK_202102040549325290.pdf
Mulcahy, K. V. (2017). Patronizing mega-events to globalize identity: The Olympic opening ceremony as a cultural policy. In K. V. Mulcahy, (eds.), Public Culture, Cultural Identity, Cultural Policy (pp. 65-92). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-43543-9_3
Newton, K. (2019). International Relations and World Politics. UK: ED-Tech Press.
Nuclear Threat Initiative (2021). The CNS North Korea missile test database. NTI. Retrieved June 1, 2021, from https://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/cns-north-korea-missile-test-database/
Öberg, M. D. (2005). The legal effects of resolutions of the UN security council and general assembly in the Jurisprudence of the ICJ. European Journal of International Law, 16(5), 879-906. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chi151
Panda, A. (2018). 3 Takeaways from Kim Jong-un's 2018 New year's address. The Diplomat. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from https://thediplomat.com/2018/01/3-takeaways-from-kim-jong-uns-2018-new-years-address/
Pease, K. S. (2018). International organizations: Perspectives on Global Governance. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351213110
Pettman, R. (2005). Human security as global security: reconceptualizing strategic studies. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 18(1), 137-150. https://doi.org/10.1080/09557570500059878
Pound, R. W. (1994). Five rings over Korea: The secret negotiations behind the 1988 Olympic games in Seoul. Little Brown.
Rennie-Short, J. (2013). Global metropolitan: Globalizing cities in a capitalist world. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203508657
Reid, H. L. (2006). Olympic sport and its lessons for peace. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 33(2), 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2006.9714702
Reiche, D. (2016). Success and failure of countries at the Olympic Games. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315757308
Rich, M. (2018). Olympics open with Koreas marching together, offering hope for peace. The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/09/world/asia/olympics-opening-ceremony-north-korea.html
Roche, M. (2002). The Olympics and global citizenship. Citizenship Studies, 6(2), 165-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/13621020220142950
Rosamond, B. (2000). Theories of European integration. St. Martin's Press.
Sterling-Folker, J. A. (2013). Making sense of international relations theory. Lynne Rienner.
Tarrow, S. (1996). Social movements in contentious politics: A review article. American Political Science Review, 90(4), 874-883. https://doi.org/10.2307/2945851
United Nations. (1945). The UN charter. United Nation. Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://www.un.org/en/charter-united-nations/
United Nations. (1993). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly. United Nations. Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://undocs.org/A/RES/48/11
United Nations. (1998). Memorandum of Understanding between the UN and the Republic of Iraq. United Nations. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/unscom/s98-166.htm
United Nations. (2000). Building a peaceful and better world through sport and the Olympic ideal. United Nations. Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N00/628/01/pdf/N0062801.pdf?OpenElement
United Nations. (2012). Security Council fails to adopt draft resolution on Syria as Russian Federation, China veto text supporting Arab league's proposed peace plan. United Nations. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from https://www.un.org/press/en/2012/sc10536.doc.htm
United Nations.(2017a). Resolution 2375. United Nations. Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://undocs.org/S/RES/2375(2017)
United Nations. (2017b). General debate: Republic of Korea. United Nations. Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://gadebate.un.org/en/72/republic-korea
United Nations. (2017c). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly. United Nations. Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/72/6
United Nations. (2017d). General debate: United States of America. United Nations. Retrieved June 1, 2020, from https://gadebate.un.org/sites/default/files/gastatements/72/us_en.pdf
U.S. Department of State. (2018). Department press briefing. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from https://www.state.gov/briefings/department-press-briefing-february-13-2018/
Waltz, K. N. (1979). Theory of International Politics. Random House.
Ward, A. (2019). North Korea tested a missile over the weekend: The Trump admin flubbed the response. Vox. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://www.vox.com/world/2019/5/6/18531121/north-korea-missile-test-trump-pompeo
Weiss, T. G. (2013). International organization and global governance. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203795972
Wilson, G. L. (2017). World War III: Nuclear War. Archway Publishing.
Yu, Y., & Jiangyong, L. (2011). A comparative analysis of the Olympic impact in East Asia: from Japan, South Korea to China. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 28(16), 2290-2308. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523367.2011.626682
How to Cite
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.