Effects of age vestibular and visual systems on the soleus H-reflex
Keywords:Balance, Elderly, Electromyography, Motor response, H-reflex suppression
The vestibular system, visual and proprioceptive pathways provide information about control of posture, movement and balance. Loss of postural control directly leads to a greater incidence of falling in the elderly population causing serious health problems. One important neuromuscular mechanism instrumental in the control of posture and balance is the reflex system. However, the age-related changes of vestibular and visual systems and their relationship with the reflex system are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, the vestibular and the visual systems on the modulation pattern of the soleus H reflex. Seventeen neurologically healthy volunteers were categorized by age in two groups: young (n = 8, mean age = 22.1 ± 5.0 yr.) and elderly (n = 9, mean age = 59.3 ± 12.8 yr.). Maximal soleus H-reflex (H-max) and motor response (M-max) amplitudes were determined prior to testing at each condition while subjects were lying supine on a tilt table for standardization. Stimulation intensity was set to evoke a 5-10% M-wave on each trial. Participants received 5 test H-reflex stimuli in two conditions, static 60º and dynamic 60º on a tilt table. Both tilt conditions were performed with vision and no vision. A 3-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) 2 (groups: young/old) x 2 (condition: static/dynamic) x 2(vision: vision/no vision) was used to assess changes in H-reflexes. All data were expressed relative to the H-reflex amplitude at 0º static on the tilt table. The results showed a significant 3-way interaction (p = .038). The old group showed greater H-reflex amplitude in the no vision condition at static 60º (vision:0.97; no vision:1.23) whereas in the young group less modulation was demonstrated in the same condition (vision:1.15; no vision:1.12). These results suggest in young subjects the vestibular system produced a suppression of the H-reflex with or without visual input; however, in the old group vision was necessary for this suppression. The interaction between the visual and vestibular systems as we age needs to be further explored.
Funding2219- International Postdoctoral Research Scholarship Programme of The Scientific and Technical Research Council Of Turkey (TUBITAK) Scientific Human Resources Development and by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation
Angulo-Kinzler RM, Mynark RG, Koceja DM. (1998) Soleus H-Reflex Gain in Elderly and Young Adults: Modulation Due To Body Position. Journal of Gerontology 53A(2): M120-MI25. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/53A.2.M120
Agrawal Y, Carey JP, Della Santina CC, Schubert MC, Minor LB (2009) Disorders of Balance and Vestibular Function in US Adults: Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2004. Arch Intern Med 169(10):938-44. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2009.66
Appiah-Kubi KO, Wright WG (2019) Vestibular Training Promotes Adaptation of Multisensory Integration in Postural Control. Gait Posture 73:215-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.07.197
Baloh RW, Ying SH, Jacobson KM (2003) A longitudinal study of gait and balance dysfunction in normal older people. Arch Neurol. 60(6):835-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.60.6.835
Baudry S, Duchateau J (2012) Age-related influence of vision and proprioception on Ia presynaptic inhibition in soleus muscle during upright stance. Journal of Physiology-London 590(21):5541-5554. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.228932
Baudry S, Penzer F, Duchateau J (2014) Input-output characteristics of soleus homonymous Ia afferents and corticospinal pathways during upright standing differ between young and elderly adults. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 210(3):667-77. https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.12233
Crone C, Hultborn H, Mazières L, Morin L, Nielsen J, Pierrot-Deseilligny E (1990) Sensitivity of monosynaptic test reflexes to facilitation and inhibition as a function of the test reflex size: a study in man and the cat. Exp Brain Res. 81(1):35-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00230098
Dizio PA, Lackner JR (1986) Perceived orientation, motion, and configuration of the body during viewing of an off-vertical, rotating surface. Perception & Psychophysics 39(1):39-46. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03207582
Enrietto JA, Jacobson KM, Baloh RW (1999) Aging effects on auditory and vestibular responses: a longitudinal study. Am J Otolaryngol 20:371-378. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0709(99)90076-5
Hultborn H, Meunier S, Pierrot‐Deseilligny E, Shindo M (1987) Changes in presynaptic inhibition of Ia fibres at the onset of voluntary contraction in man. J.Physiol. 389:757-772. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1987.sp016681
Iwasaki S, Yamasoba T (2015) Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System. Aging Dis. 6(1):38-47. https://doi.org/10.14336/AD.2014.0128
Keshner EA, Allum JHJ, Pfaltz CR (1987) Postural coactivation and adaptation in the sway stabilizing responses of normals and patients with bilateral vestibular deficit, Exp Brain Res. 69:77-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00247031
Kido A, Tanaka N, Stein RB (2004) Spinal excitation and inhibition decrease as humans age. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 82:238-48. https://doi.org/10.1139/y04-017
Knikou M, Rymer WZ (2003) Static and dynamic changes in body orientation modulate spinal reflex excitability in humans. Experimental Brain Research 152(4):466-475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-003-1577-3
Koceja DM, Markus CA, Trimble MH (1995) Postural modulation of the soleus H-reflex in young and old subjects. Electroencephal Clin Neurophysiol. 97:387-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-980X(95)00163-F
Koceja DM, Mynark RG (2000) Comparison of Heteronymous Monosynaptic Ia Facilitation in Young and Elderly Subjects in Supine and Standing Positions. International Journal of Neuroscience 104(1),1-15. https://doi.org/10.3109/00207450009035005
Le Mouel C, Brette R (2019) Anticipatory coadaptation of ankle stiffness and sensorimotor gain for standing balance. PLoS Comput Biol. 15(11):1-28. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007463
Meunier S, Pierrot‐Deseilligny E (1989) Gating of the afferent volley of the monosynaptic stretch reflex during movement in man. Journal of Physiology 419:753-763. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017896
Misiaszek JE (2003) The h-reflex as a tool ın neurophysıology: ıts lımıtatıons and uses ın understandıng nervous system function. Muscle Nerve 28:144 -160. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.10372
Mynark RG (2005) Reliability of the soleus H-reflex from supine to standing in young and elderly. Clinical Neurophysiology 116(6):1400-1404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2005.02.001
Osoba MY, Rao AK, Agrawal SK, Lalwani AK (2019) Balance and gait in the elderly: A contemporary review. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 4(1):143-153. https://doi.org/10.1002/lio2.252
Paige GD (1992) Senescence of human visual-vestibular interactions, I: vestibulo-ocular reflex and adaptive plasticity with aging. Exp Brain Res. 2:133-151.
Papegaaij S, Taube W, Baudry S, Otten E, Hortobagyi T (2014) Aging causes a reorganization of cortical and spinal control of posture. Front. Aging Neurosci. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00028
Paterka RJ, Black FO, Schoenhoff MB (1990) Age-related changes in human vestibulo- ocular reflexes: sinusoidal rotation and caloric tests. J Vestib Res.;1:49- 59.
Penzer F, Duchateau J, Baudry S (2015) Effects of short-term training combining strength and balance exercises on maximal strength and upright standing steadiness in elderly adults. Exp Gerontol. 61:38-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2014.11.013
Pierrot-Deseilligny E, Burke D (2005) The Circuitry of the Human Spinal Cord: Its Role in Motor Control and Movement Disorders: Cambridge University Press, New York. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511545047
Pinar S, Kitano K, Koceja DM (2010) Role of vision and task complexity on soleus H-reflex gain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 20(2):354-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2009.03.002
Schrager MA, Kelly VE, Price R, Ferrucci L, Shumway-Cook A (2008) The effects of age on medio-lateral stability during normal and narrow base walking. Gait Posture 28:466-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.02.009
Studenski S, Perera S, Patel K, Rosano C, Faulkner K, Inzitari M et al. (2011) Gait speed and survival in older adults. JAMA 305:50-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1923
Sherrington C, Whitney JC, Lord SR, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Close JC (2008) Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 56(12):2234-4. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02014.x
Schieppati M (1987) The Hoffmann reflex: a means of assessing spinal reflex excitability and its descending control in man. Prog Neurobiol. 28(4):345-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-0082(87)90007-4
Teasdale N, Stelmach GE, Breunig A (1991) Postural sway characteristics of the elderly under normal and altered visual and support surface conditions. J Gerontol. 46(6):B238-244. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/46.6.B238
Tsuruike M, Kitano K, Koceja DM, Riley ZA (2012) Differential control of H-reflex amplitude in different weight-bearing conditions in young and elderly subjects. Clinical Neurophysiology 123(10):2018-2024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2012.03.006
Vanspauwen R (2018) Dizziness and (Fear of) Falling in The Elderly: A Few Facts. J Int Adv Otol. 14(1):1-2. https://doi.org/10.5152/iao.2018.0201815
Zehr EP (2002) Considerations for use of the Hoffmann reflex in exercise studies. Eur J Appl Physiol. 86(6):455-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0577-5
Zehr EP ( 2006) Training-induced adaptive plasticity in human somatosensory reflex pathways. 101(6):1783-94. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00540.2006
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.