Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Motivation and satisfaction in university sports volunteering

Salvador Angosto, Arturo Díaz-Suárez, José María López-Gullón



The aim of this study is to determine the motivation of the university sports volunteer by comparing the results according to gender and previous experience, as well as to observe which motivation factor has the greatest influence on satisfaction with the specific motivations of the volunteer. The study was cross-sectional by questionnaire, with 128 university volunteers interviewed who participated in a sports volunteering programme. The instruments used were a sample of 128 university volunteers who were given the VFI and another to assess satisfaction. The questionnaire was conducted online. The results show that both men and women feel motivated in the dimensions of Understanding, Values and Enhancement, obtaining above-average results in these motivational profiles. According to experience, volunteers with more experience had higher scores. Satisfaction with motivation can be predicted by enhancement, understanding and protective. The results of this study will help to deepen the motivational profile of volunteering in the sports and university context. It will also allow organizations to better manage volunteering - and to improve the quality of life of their employees. Universities are an important volunteer base, not only social but also more and more in sports, making it necessary to evaluate the motivational profile and satisfaction of this potential group to be a volunteer once their academic stage is over.


Sport event; Volunteering; University; Motivation; Satisfaction; VFI


Aisbett, L., Randle, E., & Kappelides, P. (2015). Future volunteer intentions at a major sport event. Annals of Leisure Research, 18(4), 491-509.

Alexander, A., Kim, S. B., & Kim, D. Y. (2015). Segmenting volunteers by motivation in the 2012 London Olympic Games. Tourism Management, 47, 1-10.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2015). General social survey: Summary results, 2014. Available at: (accessed 12 September 2019)

Baena, M. J., Parra-Camacho, D., Pérez-Campos, C., & García-Fernández, J. (2014). Satisfaction, perceived value and future intentions among the volunteers of Basketball World Cup 2014. Journal of Sports Economics & Management, 4(1), 39-54.

Bang, H. & Ross, S. D. (2009). Volunteer motivation and satisfaction. Journal of Venue and Event Management, 1(1), 61-77. Available at: (accessed 17 September 2019)

Barkley, E. F. (2010). Student engagement techniques: A handbook for college faculty. John Wiley y Sons, San Francisco, EEUU.

Chacón, F., Vecina, M. L., & Dávila, M. C. (2007). The three-stage model of volunteers' durations of service. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 35(5), 627-642.

Chelladurai, P. & Kerwin, S. (2017). Human resources management in sport and recreation (3rd ed.). Human Kinetics, Champing, IL.

Clary, E. G. & Snyder, M. (1999). The motivation to volunteer: Theoretical and practical consideration. Current Directions in Psychological Sciences, 8(5), 156-159.

Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., & Miene, P. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: a functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1516-1530.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Quantitaitve Methods in Psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.

Costa, C. A., Chalip, L., Green, B. C., & Simes, C. (2006). Reconsidering the role of training in event volunteers' satisfaction. Sport Management Review, 9(2), 165-182.

Dávila, M. C. & Chacón, F. (2004). Factores psicosociales y tipo de voluntariado. Psicothema, 16(4), 639-645.

Dickson, T. J., Darcy, S., Edwards, D., & Terwiel, F. A. (2015). Sport mega-event volunteers' motivations and post-event intention to volunteer: The Sydney World Masters Games, 2009. Event Management, 19(2), 227-245.

Farrell, J. M., Johnston, M. E., & Twynam, G. D. (1998). Volunteer motivation, satisfaction, and management at an elite sporting competition. Journal of Sport Management, 12(4), 288-300.

Finkelstein, M. A., Penner, L. A., & Brannick, M. T. (2005). Motive, role identity and prosocial personality as predictors of volunteer activity. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(4), 403-418.

Giannoulakis, C., Wang, C. H., & Gray, D. (2007). Measuring volunteer motivation in mega-sporting events. Event Management, 11(4), 191-200.

Greenslade, J. H. & White, K. M. (2005). The prediction of above-average participation in volunteerism: A test of the theory of planned behaviour and the volunteers' functions inventory in older australian adults. Journal of Social Psychology, 145(2), 155-172.

Güntert, S. T., Neufeind, M., & Wehner, T. (2015). Motives for event volunteering: Extending the functional approach. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 44(4), 686-707.

Hallmann, K. & Harms, G. (2012). Determinants of volunteer motivation and their impact on future voluntary engagement: A comparison of volunteer's motivation at sport events in equestrian and handball. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 3(3), 272-291.

Han, K., Quarterman, J., Strigas, E., Ha, J., & Lee, S. (2013). Committed sport event volunteers. ICHPER-SD, Journal of Research in Health Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance, 8(2), 45-54.

Hassan, D. & Harding, C. (2018). Motorsport volunteerism: a form of social contract. Sport in Society, 21(5), 815-832.

Holmes, K. & Smith, K. (2009). Managing volunteers in tourism: Destinations, attractions and events. Wallingford, England: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

International Labour Organization. (2011). Manual of the measurement of volunteer work. International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland.

Johnson, J. E., Giannoulakis, C., Felver, N., Judge, L. W., David, P. A., Scott, B. F. (2016). Motivation, satisfaction, and retention of sport management student volunteers. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 9(1), 1-27.

Kemp, S. (2002). The hidden workforce: volunteers' learning in the Olympics. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26, 109-116.

Kenyatta, G. N. & Zani, A. P. (2014). An evaluation of the motives behind volunteering and existing motivational strategies among voluntary organizations in Kenya. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(23), 84-95.

Kim, M., Chelladurai, P., & Trail, G. T. (2007). A model of volunteer retention in youth sport. Journal of Sport Management, 21(2), 151-171.

Kim, E., Fredline, L., & Cuskelly, G. (2018). Heterogeneity of sport event volunteer motivations: A segmentation approach. Tourism Management, 68, 375-386.

Kim, M., Kim, S. S. K., Kim, M., & Zhang, J. J. (2019b). Assessing volunteer satisfaction at the London Olympic Games and its impact on future volunteer behaviour. Sport in Society, 22:11, 1864-1881,

Kim, B. J., Kim, M. H., & Lee, J. (2019a). Congruence Matters: Volunteer Motivation, Value Internalization, and Retention. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 19(5).

Kim, D., Park, C., Kim, H., & Kim, J. (2019c). Determinants and outcomes of volunteer satisfaction in mega sports events. Sustainability, 11(7), 1859.

McGregor-Lowndes, M., Crittall, M., Conroy, D., & Keast, R. (2017). Individual giving and volunteering: Giving Australia 2016. Australian Government Department of Social Services. Brisbane, Queensland.

National Council for Voluntary Organisations. (2018). UK civil society almanac 2018. Available at: (accessed 17 September 2019)

Omoto, A. M. & Snyder, M. (1995). Sustained helping without obligation: motivation, longevity of service, and perceived attitude change among AIDS volunteers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(4), 671-687.

Omoto, A. M., Snyder, M., & Hackett, J. D. (2010). Personality and motivational antecedents of activism and civic engagement. Journal of Personality, 78(6), 1703-1734.

Pierce, D., Johnson, J., Felver, N., Wanless, E., & Judge, L. (2014). Influence of Volunteer Motivations on Satisfaction for Undergraduate Sport Management Students. Global Sport Business Journal, 2(2), 63-72.

Schlesinger, T. & Gubler, R. (2016). Motivational profiles of sporting event volunteers. Sport in Society, 19(10), 1419-1439.

Sharififar, F., Ganjouie, F. A., Tondnevis, F., & Zarei, A. (2011). Effect of Social Factors and Motives on Commitment- of Sport Events Volunteers. Technic Technologies Education Management, 5(1), 184-190.

Soto-Lagos, R., Vergara, C., & Fernández-Vergara, O. (2017). Volunteering and sport: analysis of factors on the impact of the satisfaction of volunteers of the South American Games Santiago de Chile 2014. Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte, 39(2), 191-198.

Statistics Canada. (2015). Volunteering in Canada, 2004 to 2013. Catalogue no. 89-652-X2015003. Available at: (accessed 17 September 2019)

Strigas, A. D. & Jackson Jr, E. N. (2003). Motivating volunteers to serve and succeed: Design and results of a pilot study that explores demographics and motivational factors in sport volunteerism. International Sports Journal, 7(1), 111.

United Nations Development Programme. (2003). Volunteerism and development.

United Nations Volunteer. (2018). State of the World's Volunteerism Report 2018: The tread that binds. Available at:

Van den Berg, L., Cuskelly, G., & Auld, C. (2015). A comparative study between Australian and South African university sport students' volunteer motives and constraints: sport management and governance. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation & Dance, 21(1), 127-141.

Vecina, M. L. & Chacón, F. (2005). Positive emotions in volunteerism. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 30-35.

Vecina, M. L., Chacón, F., & Sueiro, M. J. (2009). Satisfacción en el voluntariado: estructura interna y relación con la permanencia en las organizaciones. Psicothema, 21(1), 112-117.

Vetitnev, A., Bobina, N., & Terwiel, F. A. (2018). The influence of host volunteer motivation on satisfaction and attitudes toward Sochi 2014 Olympic Games. Event Management, 22(3), 333-352.

Volunteer Canada. (2015). The Canadian Volunteer landscape. Available at: (accessed 14 September 2020)

Volunteer Observatory (2017). La acción voluntaria en 2017. Errores y creencias de la población española sobre el voluntariado. Plataforma del voluntariado, Madrid, España.

Wicker, P. (2017). Volunteerism and volunteer management in sport. Sport Management Review, 20(4), 325-337.

Wicker, P. & Hallmann, K. (2013). A multi-level framework for investigating the engagement of sport volunteers. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(1), 110-139.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.