Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Is positive self-perception a determinant of cardiovascular performance? A didactic and sustainable view in female university students

Salvador Baena-Morales, Honorato Morente-Oria, Olalla García-Taibo, Francisco Tomás González-Fernández

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2023.181.11

Abstract

Traditionally women have been less active and physically active than men. Although the recent literature indicates this gender gap, the sexes' difference when practicing sport seems to be decreasing. This study framework's importance could be reflected in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proposed by UNESCO, which highlight the need to generate strategies to improve health (SDG 3) and equalize opportunities between men and women (SDG 4). The reasons for these differences are multifactorial, with intrinsic and extrinsic motivations indicated as requiring further research. Self-perception in physical performance has been documented to influence women to perform the exercise and physical activity. Therefore, this research aimed to identify and healthy women's self-perception and motivations to perform in a VO2max test. A total of 31 women (21.12 ± 2.01) completed the research. The study was divided into two principal tests. On the one hand, the measurement of a sub-maximal incremental stress test following established ASCM indications. Heart rate and ventilatory parameters were measured during the stress test using a metabolic measurement system and a gas analyser. After the test, the study sample completed the self-completed Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire and the International Short Form Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF), and the Self Report of Reasons for Physical Activity (AMPEF). Correlation between VO2Max and average weight and body image (r = .001) was detected, showing the positive relationship between both values. The results obtained help confirm the importance of a positive self-perception in women regarding their weight and body image for better physical performance. Although these findings cannot be generalized, they establish a potential relationship between better physical performance and self-perception in most adults.


Keywords

Physical activity; Women; Self-perception; Motivations

References

Álvarez-Bueno, C., Pesce, C., Cavero-Redondo, I., Sánchez-López, M., Martínez-Hortelano, J. A., & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. (2017). The Effect of Physical Activity Interventions on Children's Cognition and Metacognition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.06.012

Arévalo, M. T. V., Muñoz, A. F. O., & Cuevas, J. R. T. (2016). Tipologías de estilos de vida en jóvenes universitarios. Universidad y Salud, 18(2), 246-256. https://doi.org/10.22267/rus.161802.35

Bauman, A. E., Reis, R. S., Sallis, J. F., Wells, J. C., Loos, R. J. F., Martin, B. W., Alkandari, J. R., Andersen, L. B., Blair, S. N., Brownson, R. C., Bull, F. C., Craig, C. L., Ekelund, U., Goenka, S., Guthold, R., Hallal, P. C., Haskell, W. L., Heath, G. W., Inoue, S., … Sarmiento, O. L. (2012). Correlates of physical activity: Why are some people physically active and others not? In The Lancet (Vol. 380, Issue 9838, pp. 258-271). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60735-1

Blanco, H., Verónica Benavides, E., Tristán, J. L., & Mayorga-Vega, D. (2017). Actividad física, imagen corporal y autoconcepto personal en jóvenes universitarias Mexicanas. Revista de Psicologia Del Deporte, 26, 25-33.

Capdevila Ortís, L., Pintanel Bassets, M., & Niñerola i Naymí, J. (2006). Barreras percibidas y actividad física: el autoinforme de barreras para la práctica de ejercicio físico. Revista de Psicología Del Deporte, 15(1), 53-69.

Carriedo, A., González, C., & López, I. (2019). Habits of sports consumption and physical activity practice in university students. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 11(Supl 1), 167-176.

Castañeda-Vázquez, C., del Carmen Campos-Mesa, M., & Del Castillo-Andrés, Ó. (2016). Actividad física y percepción de salud de los estudiantes universitarios. Revista de la Facultad de Medicina, 64(2), 277-284. https://doi.org/10.15446/revfacmed.v64n2.53068

Cuenca-García, M., Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., González-Gross, M., Labayen, I., Jago, R., Martínez-Gómez, D., Dallongeville, J., Bel-Serrat, S., Marcos, A., Manios, Y., Breidenassel, C., Widhalm, K., Gottrand, F., Ferrari, M., Kafatos, A., Molnár, D., Moreno, L. A., De Henauw, S., … Sjöström, M. (2014). Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 24(3), 553-562. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12022

Elizondo, A. J., Guillén, G. F., y Aguinaga, O. I. (2005). Prevalencia de actividad física y su relación con variables sociodemográficas y estilos de vida en la población de 18 a 65 años de Pamplona. Revista Española de Salud Pública,79(5), 559-567. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1135-57272005000500006

Esnaola, I., Goñi, A., & Madariaga, J. M. (2008). El autoconcepto: Perspectivas de investigación. Revista de Psicodidactica, 13(1), 179-194.

Farinola, M. G., Bazán, N. E., Laíño, F. A., y Santa-María, C. J. (2012). Actividad física y conducta sedentaria en estudiantes terciarios y universitarios de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Revista Brasilera Ciencia e Movimento,20, 79-90.

García Ferrando, M., & Llopis, M. (2011). Encuesta sobre los hábitos deportivos en España. Ideal democrático y bienestar personal. CSD. Madrid.

García Puello, F., & Herazo Beltrán, Y. (2015). Factores sociodemográficos y motivacionales asociados a la actividad física en estudiantes universitarios. Revista Medica de Chile, 143(11), 1411-1418. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872015001100006

García, H. J., y Fonseca, H. C. (2012). La actividad física en los y las jóvenes mexicanos y mexicanas: un análisis comparativo entre las universidades públicas y privadas. MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.15359/mhs.9-2.1

García, P. F., Herazo, B. Y., y Tuesca, M. R. (2015). Factores sociodemográficos y motivacionales asociados a la actividad física en estudiantes universitarios. Revista médica de Chile,143(11), 1411-1418. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872015001100006

Gómez, P., Murcia, J., & García, P. (2006). Influencia social del género y de la percepción de competencia en la valoración de las clases de educación física. Revista Española de Educación Física y Deportes, 379, 37.

Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D. M., & Buck, S. M. (2005). Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(11), 1967-1974. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000176680.79702.ce

Hosker, D. K., Elkins, R. M., & Potter, M. P. (2019). Promoting Mental Health and Wellness in Youth Through Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Sleep. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 28(2), 171-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2018.11.010

Kokkinos, P., Sheriff, H., & Kheirbek, R. (2011). Physical inactivity and mortality risk. Cardiology Research and Practice, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/924945

Markland, D. y Hardy, L. (1993). The Exercise Motivations Inventory: Preliminary development and validity of measure of individuals' reasons for participation in regular physical exercise. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 289-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90219-S

Markland, D., & Ingledew, D. K. (1997). The measurement of exercise motives: Factorial validity and invariance across gender of a revised Exercise Motivations Inventory. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2(4), 361-376. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.1997.tb00549.x

Martin, K. A., Bassett, R. L. y Conlin, C. (2012). Body image and exercise. En E. O. Acevedo (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of exercise psychology (pp.55-75). Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.04.002

Mavilidi, M. F., Mason, C., Leahy, A. A., Kennedy, S. G., Eather, N., Hillman, C. H., Morgan, P. J., Lonsdale, C., Wade, L., Riley, N., Heemskerk, C., & Lubans, D. R. (2020). Effect of a Time-Efficient Physical Activity Intervention on Senior School Students' On-Task Behaviour and Subjective Vitality: the 'Burn 2 Learn' Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial. Educational Psychology Review. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09537-x

Mohammed, A. J., & Ghebreyesus, T. A. (2018). Healthy living, well-being and the sustainable development goals. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 96(9), 18-19. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.222042

Morales, G., del Valle, C., Soto, Á., y Ivanovic, D. (2013). Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios. Revista chilena de nutrición,40(4), 391-396. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75182013000400010

Murgui, S., García, C., & García, Á. (2016). Efecto de la práctica deportiva en la relación entre las habilidades motoras, el autoconcepto físico y el autoconcepto multidimensional. Revista de Psicologia Del Deporte, 25(1), 19-25.

Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Castillo, M. J., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: A powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity, 32(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774

Ortega, Francisco B., Ruiz, J. R., & Castillo, M. J. (2013). Actividad física, condición física y sobrepeso en niños y adolescentes: Evidencia procedente de estudios epidemiológicos. Endocrinologia y Nutricion, 60(8), 458-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.endonu.2012.10.006

Papaioannou, A., Milosis, D., & Gotzaridis, C. (2019). Interdisciplinary Teaching of Physics in Physical Education: Effects on Students' Autonomous Motivation and Satisfaction. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 39(2), 156-164. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2018-0315

Puerta Mateus, K. C., De La Rosa Luna, R., & Ramos Vivanco, A. M. (2019). Niveles de actividad física y su relación entre la distribución por sexo y programa académico en una universidad. MHSALUD Revista En Ciencias Del Movimiento Humano y Salud, 16(2), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.15359/mhs.16-2.4

Puerta, K. C., De La Rosa, R., & Ramos-Vivanco, A. M. (2019). Niveles de actividad física y su relación entre la distribución por sexo y programa académico en una universidad. MHSalud, 16(2), 46-57. https://doi.org/10.15359/mhs.16-2.4

Ruiz, J. R., Castro-Piñero, J., Artero, E. G., Ortega, F. B., Sjöström, M., Suni, J., & Castillo, M. J. (2009). Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(12), 909-923. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.056499

Tomkinson, G. R., Carver, K. D., Atkinson, F., Daniell, N. D., Lewis, L. K., Fitzgerald, J. S., Lang, J. J., & Ortega, F. B. (2018). European normative values for physical fitness in children and adolescents aged 9-17 years: Results from 2 779 165 Eurofit performances representing 30 countries. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(22), 1445-1456. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098253

Tylka, T. L. (2012). Feminist perspectives on body image. En T. F. Cash y L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image. A handbook of science, practice and prevention (pp. 56-66). New York: Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.09.006

UNESCO. (2017). Education for Sustainable Development Goals: Learning Objective. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000247444

Wilmot, E. G., Edwardson, C. L., Achana, F. A., Davies, M. J., Gorely, T., Gray, L. J., Khunti, K., Yates, T., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2012). Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 55(11), 2895-2905. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-012-2677-z

Wilson, P. M., & Rodgers, W. M. (2002). The relationship between exercise motives and physical self-esteem in female exercise participants: An application of self-determination theory. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 7(1), 30-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9861.2002.tb00074.x




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2023.181.11





Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.