The efficacy of core stability assessment as a determiner of performance in dynamic balance and agility tests
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if tests used to assess core stability could be used to determine success in physiological tests applied to assess dynamic balance and agility for a young active population. Methods: Pearson's r correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the core stability tests and the dynamic balance and agility tests. Evaluation of the tests was established using Cronbach's coefficient of variance as part of intra-rater reliability tests. An analysis of 18 active college aged students was conducted (males: n= 13, females: n= 5). The mean ± SD age for males was 19.2 years ± 3.22 years and for females was 19.4 years ± 1.14 years. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is no significant relationship between tests that assess core stability and tests conducted to assess dynamic balance in active young adults. With the exception of the abdominal flexion test, no significant relationship exists between the remaining core stability tests and agility T-Test. Core stability is not a determinant of balance and agility.
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 7th ed (2006).
Araujo, S., Cohen, D., & Hayes, L. (2015). Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study.Journal of Human Kinetics, 45(1), 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0004
Biering-Sorensen, E. (1984). Physical measurements as risk indicators for low-back trouble over a one-year period, Spine, 9,106-19. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198403000-00002
Brumitt, J. (2010). Core assessment and training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Coughlan, G. F., Delahunt, E., O'Sullivan, E., Fullam, K., Green, B. S., & Caulfield, B. M. (2014). Star excursion balance test performance and application in elite junior rugby union players. Physical Therapy In Sport, 15(4), 249-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2013.11.005
Coughlan, G. F., Fullam, K., Delahunt, E., Gissane, C., Caulfield, B. M. (2012). A Comparison Between Performance on Selected Directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Y Balance Test. Journal Of Athletic Training (Allen Press), 47(4), 366-371. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-47.4.03
de Villiers, J. E., & Venter, R. E. (2014). Barefoot Training Improved Ankle Stability and Agility in Netball Players. International Journal Of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(3), 485-496. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9522.214.171.1245
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.
Flint, M. M. (1958). Effect of increasing back and abdominal muscle strength on low back pain. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 29(2), 160-171.
Granacher, U., Lacroix, A., Roettger, K., Gollhofer, A., & Muehlbauer, T. (2014). Relationships Between Trunk Muscle Strength, Spinal Mobility, and Balance Performance in Older Adults. Journal Of Aging & Physical Activity, 22(4), 490-498. https://doi.org/10.1123/JAPA.2013-0108
Gribble, P. A., & Hertel, J. (2003). Considerations for normalizing measures of the Star Excursion Balance Test. Measurement in physical education and exercise science, 7(2), 89-100. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327841MPEE0702_3
Gribble, P. A., Kelly, S. E., Refshauge, K. M., & Hiller, C. E. (2013). Interrater reliability of the star excursion balance test. Journal of athletic training, 48(5), 621-626. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.03
Hyong, I. H., & Kim, J. H. (2014). Test of intrarater and interrater reliability for the star excursion balance test. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(8), 1139-1141. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.26.1139
J. Cohen. (1992). A power primer. Quantitative Methods in Psychology, 12(1), 155-159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155
Kline, P. (1999). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Lee, D.G., (2005) The Thorax: an integrated approach for restoring function, relieving pain. Physiotherapist Corporation, Canada.
Logan, S. W., Scrabis-Fletcher, K., Modlesky, C., & Getchell, N. (2011). The relationship between motor skill proficiency and body mass index in preschool children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 442-448. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2011.10599776
McGill, S. M., Childs, A., & Liebenson, C. (1999). Endurance times for low back stabilization exercises: clinical targets for testing and training from a normal database. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 80(8), 941-944. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90087-4
Moreland, J., Finch, E., Stratford, P., Balsor, B., & Gill, C. (1997). Interrater reliability of six tests of trunk muscle function and endurance. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 26(4), 200-208. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.19126.96.36.199
Munro, A. G., & Herrington, L. C. (2010). Between-session reliability of the star excursion balance test. Physical Therapy in Sport, 11(4), 128-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.07.002
O'Donoghue, P. (2012). Statistics for sport and exercise studies. New York: Routledge.
Osmani, A., & Driton, M. (2014). Differences in the motoric abilities of students due to the body mass index (BMI). Sport Mont, (40-42), 89-92.
Pauole, K., Madole, K., Garhammer, J., Lacourse, M., & Rozenek, R. (2000). Reliability and validity of the T-test as a measure of agility, leg power, and leg speed in college-aged men and women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 14(4), 443-450.
Petersen, C., & Nittinger, N. (2014). Core Stability: Connecting lower core and legs. Coaching & Sport Science Review, 64, 18-20.
Raya, M. A., Gailey, R. S., Gaunaurd, I. A., Jayne, D. M., Campbell, S. M., Gagne, E.,Tucker, C. (2013). Comparison of three agility tests with male servicemembers: Edgren side step test, T-test, and illinois agility test. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 50(7), 951-960. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2012.05.0096
Rosenthal, J.A. (1996), "Qualitative descriptors of strength of association and effect size," Journal of Social Service Research, 21(4): 37-59. https://doi.org/10.1300/J079v21n04_02
Sabharwal, S., & Kumar, A. (2008). Methods for assessing leg length discrepancy. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 466(12), 2910-2922. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-008-0524-9
Sassi, R. H., Dardouri, W., Yahmed, M. H., Gmada, N., Mahfoudhi, M. E., & Gharbi, Z. (2009). Relative and absolute reliability of a modified agility T-test and its relationship with vertical jump and straight sprint. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(6), 1644-1651. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b425d2
Semenick, D. (1990). Tests and Measurements: The T-test. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 12(1), 36-37. https://doi.org/10.1519/0744-0049(1990)012<0036:TTT>2.3.CO;2
Shaffer, S. W., Teyhen, D. S., Lorenson, C. L., Warren, R. L., Koreerat, C. M., Straseske, C. A., & Child, J. D. (2013). Y-Balance Test: A Reliability Study Involving Multiple Raters. Military Medicine, 178(11), 1264-1270. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00222
Sharrock, C., Cropper, J., Mostad, J., Johnson, M., & Malone, T. (2011). A PILOT STUDY OF CORE STABILITY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE: IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP? International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 6(2), 63–74.
Singh, D., Sharma, S., & Hussain, M. E. (2012). A Correlation Between Core Stability and Athletic Performance: An Electromyographic Study. Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy Journal, 5(4), 207-215.
Smart, J., McCurdy, K., Miller, B., & Pankey, R. (2011). The Effect of Core Training on Tennis Serve Velocity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25, S103-S104.
Waldhelm, A., & Li, L. (2012). Endurance tests are the most reliable core stability related measurements. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 1(2), 121-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2012.07.007
Youdas, J. W., Garrett, T. R., Egan, K. S., & Therneau, T. M. (2000). Lumbar lordosis and pelvic inclination in adults with chronic low back pain. Physical Therapy, 80(3), 261-275.
Zemková, E. (2014). Sport-Specific Balance. Sports Medicine, 44(5), 579-590. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0130-1