Strength in young rhythmic gymnasts

Amanda Batista-Santos, Rui Garganta, Lurdes Ávila-Carvalho

Abstract

The aim of this study was: 1) verify if the level of strength in young Portuguese gymnasts change according to competition levels and ranking positions; 2) compare the level of strength in finalists’ gymnasts of different competition levels; 3) identify the strength tests that discriminate the gymnasts from the different competition levels. The sample consisted of 68 Portuguese young gymnasts (11.7±0.6 years old) of two different competition levels (Base and 1st division). The International Gymnastics Federation recommended tests for strength assessment were applied. For the statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests, and the discriminant function (forward stepwise) were used. The 1st division presented higher results than the Base gymnasts in all strength tests. Regarding to competition levels by ranking groups, we observed that the finalists in Base level showed higher results than the remaining ranking groups in all strength tests. In 1st division level gymnasts, the finalists achieved higher results only in 66.7% of strength tests than the remaining ranking groups. The finalists in 1st division had higher number of years of training practice in RG and training volume than the finalists in Base level. However, the 1st division gymnasts obtained higher results in 66.7% tests but a superior statistical significance in only one strength test. Lastly, the tests “rope skipping” and “partial trunk elevations” were the strength tests that discriminate the gymnasts groups according to the competitive level.


Keywords

Rhythmic gymnastics; Strength; Portuguese gymnasts; Competition levels

References

Ávila-Carvalho, L., Klentroub, P., Palomero, M. L., & Lebre, E. (2013). Anthropometric profiles and age at menarche in elite group rhythmic gymnasts according to their chronological age. Science & Sports, 28(4), 172-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2012.04.005

Barker, A., & Armstrong, N. (2011). Exercise testing elite young athletes. In A. M. M. Neil Armstrong (Ed.), The Elite Young Athletes: Karger.

Batista-Santos, A., Lebre, E., & Ávila-Carvalho, L. (2016). Explosive power of lower limbs in rhythmic gymnastics athletes in different competitive levels. Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte, 30(1), 41-50. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-55092016000100041

Batista-Santos, A., Lemos, M. E., Lebre, E., & Ávila-Carvalho, L. (2015). Active And Passive Lower Limb Flexibility In High Level Rhythmic Gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 7 (2), 55-66.

Benck, J., Damsgaard, R., Saekmose, A., Jorgensen, P., Jorgensen, K., & Klausen, K. (2002). Anaerobic power and muscle strength characteristics of 11 years old elite and non-elite boys and girls from gymnastics, team handball, tennis and swimming. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 12, 171-178. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2002.01128.x

Bobo, M., & Sierra, E. (1998). Ximnasia Rítmica Deportiva - Adestramento e competición. Santiago de Compostela: Editora Lea.

Boligon, L., Deprá, P. P., & Rinaldi, I. P. B. (2015). Influence of flexibility in the execution of movements in rhythmic gymnastics. Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences, 37(2), 141-145. https://doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v37i2.21615

Del Vecchio, F. B., Primeira, M., Silva, H. C. d., Dall'Agnol, C., & Galliano, L. M. (2014). Nível de aptidão física de atletas de ginástica rítmica: Comparações entre categorias etárias. Revista Brasileira de Ciência e Movimento, 22(3), 5-13. https://doi.org/10.18511/0103-1716/rbcm.v22n3p5-13

Di Cagno, A., Baldari, C., Battaglia, C., Monteiro, M. D., Pappalardo, A., Piazza, M., & Guidetti, L. (2009). Factors influencing performance of competitive and amateur rhythmic gymnastics - Gender differences. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12, 411-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.01.006

Dick, F. W. (1993). Principios del entrenamiento deportivo. Deporte e Entrenamiento. Barcelona: Editorial Paidotribo.

Dobrijević, S., Dabović, M., & Moskovljević, L. (2014). The analysis of motor abilities development trend conducted on young girls engaged in practising rhythmic gymnastics. Physical Culture, 68(2), 138-149.

Donti, O., Bogdanis, G. C., Kritikou, M., Donti, A., & Theodorakou, K. (2016). The Relative Contribution of Physical Fitness to the Technical Execution Score in Youth Rhythmic Gymnastics. Journal of Human Kinetics, 51(2), 143-152. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0183

Douda, H., Avloniti, A., Kasabalis, A., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2007). Adaptations on Physical Performance Characteristics after a 6-Month Specific Training in Rhythmic Gymnasts. Medical problems of performing artists, 22(1), 10-17.

Douda, H., Toubekis, A., Avloniti, A., & Tokmakidis, S. (2008). Physiological and anthropometric determinants of rhythmic gymnastics performance. International Journal Of Sports Physiology And Performance, 3(1), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.1.41

Gateva, M. (2011). Investigations in Rhythmic Gymnastics The science of Gymnastics (pp. 45-54). USA and Canada: Routledge.

Gateva, M. (2013). Investigation of the strength abilities of rhythmic gymnasts. Research in Kinesiology, 41(2), 245-248.

Gateva, M. (2015). Tests to determinate the fitness level in rhythmic gymnastics. Sport Mont(43-45), 63-70.

Georgopoulos, N., Theodoropoulou, A., Roupas, N., Rottstein, L., Tsekouras, A., Mylonas, P., . . . Markou, K. (2012). Growth velocity and final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts. Hormones, 11(1), 61-69.

Grigoroiu, C., Pelin, R. A., Netolitzchi, M., & Pricop, A. D. (2015). Using the myotest as a high precision assessment instrument of the explosive force in rhythmic gymnastics Paper presented at the 11th International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education, Bucharest.

Hume, P. A., Hopkins, W. G., Robinson, D. M., Robinson, S. M., & Hollings, S. C. (1993). Predictors of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33(4), 367-377.

Jastrjembskaia, N., & Titov, Y. (1999). Rhythmic Gymnastics - Hoop, Ball, Clubs, Ribbon, Rope. EUA: Human Kinectics Champaign.

Klentrou, N., Gorbulina, N., Aleksandrova, N., Delle-Chiae, D., Ferrand, C., & Fink, H. (2010). Age group development program for rhythmic gymnastics sample physical testing program. Lausanne, Switzerland: International Gymnastics Federation.

Komi, P., & Bosco, C. (1978). Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 10(4), 261-265.

Kritikou, M., Donti, D., Bogdanis, G., Donti, A., & Theodorakou, K. (2017). Correlates of artistry performance scores in preadolescent rhythmic gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 9(2), 165-177

Kums, T., Ereline, J., Gapeyeva, H., & Pääsuke, M. (2005). Vertical jumping performance in young rhythmic gymnasts. Biology of Sport, 22(3), 237-246.

Laffranchi, B. (2001). Treinamento desportivo aplicado à ginástica rítmica. Londrina, Paraná: UNOPAR.

Lebre, E. (1993). Estudo comparativo das exigências técnicas e morfofuncionais em Ginástica Rítmica Desportiva (Doctorate Doctorate), University of Porto, Porto.

Lisitskaya, T. (1995). Gimnasia Rítmica. Deporte & Entrenamiento. Barcelona: Editorial Paidotribo.

McGuigan, M. (2014). Evaluation athletic capacities. In D. Joyce & D. Lewindon (Eds.), High Performance Training for Sports. Unites States of America: Human Kinetics.

Menezes, L. S., & Fernandes Filho, J. (2006). Identificação e classificação das características dermatoglíficas, somatotípicas e de qualidades físicas básicas de atletas de GR de diferentes níveis de qualificação desportiva. Fitness & Performance Journal, 5(6), 393-401. https://doi.org/10.3900/fpj.5.6.393.p

Michailov, M., Pentcheva, B., Bonova, I., Boyanov, D., Jeynov, B., Mateev, G., & Stefanova, D. (2014, 9-12 October 2014). High peak oxygen consumption in rock climbing. Paper presented at the Physical Education and Sport - Competence for life, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Miletić, D., Katić, R., & Maleš, B. (2004). Some anthropologic factors of performance in rhythmic gymnastics novices. Collegium Antropologicum, 28(2), 727-737.

Miletić, D., Sekulic, D., & Wolf-Cvitak, J. (2004). The leaping performance of 7-year-old novice rhythmic gymnasts is highly influenced by the condition of their motor abilities. Kinesiology, 36, 35-43.

Monem, J., Sands, W., Salmela, J., P., H., & Gateva, M. (2011). The Science Of Gymnastics London and New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Román, M. L., del Campo, V. L., Solana, R. S., & Martín, J. M. (2012). Perfil y diferencias antropométricas y físicas de gimnastas de tecnificación de las modalidades de artística y rítmica. Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 21, 58-62.

Rutkauskaitė, R., & Skarbalius, A. (2009). Training and sport performance of the 11-12 year old athletes in rhythmic gymnastics. Sportas, 1(72), 107-115.

Rutkauskaitė, R., & Skarbalius, A. (2011). Interaction of training and performance of 13-14-years-old athletes in rhythmic gymnastics. Sportas, 3(82), 29-36.

Rutkauskaitė, R., & Skarbalius, A. (2012). Models and interaction of intensive training and sport performance of 14-15-year-old athletes in rhythmic gymnastics. Sportas, 4(87), 57-64.

Santos, P., & Soares, J. (2001). Capacidade aeróbia em futebolistas de elite em função da posição específica no jogo. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto, 1(2), 7-12. https://doi.org/10.5628/rpcd.01.02.07

Sargent, D. A. (1921). The Physical Test of a Man. American Physical Education Review, 26, 188-194.

Stadnik, A. M. W., Ulbricht, L., Perin, A., & Ripka, W. L. (2010). Avaliação da performance relacionada aos componentes equilíbrio, força e flexibilidade de meninas praticantes de Ginástica Rítmica. EFDeportes, 15. Retrieved from http://www.efdeportes.com/efd145/avaliacao-de-meninas-praticantes-de-ginastica-ritmica.htm website.

Weineck, J. (1999). Treinamento ideal: Instruções técnicas sobre o desempenho fisiológico, incluindo considerações especificas do treinamento infantil e juvenil (Vol. 9). São Paulo: Editora Manole.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2017.124.03





License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/