Effect of visual stimuli on the jumping ability of amateur soccer players


  • Guillermo Mateos Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain
  • Manuel Sillero-Quintana Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain
  • Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain




Performance analysis of sport, Strength, Vertical jump, Reaction to visual stimuli, Team sports, CMJ, SJ


In soccer, high levels of strength applied in short durations are crucial for various performance-related actions such as accelerations, decelerations, sprints, jumps, and changes of direction. These actions often occur in the presence of visual stimuli that require attention and rapid reaction. Recent training methodologies propose integrating visual stimuli to enhance sport-specific physical abilities. However, limited research has investigated the impact of visual stimuli on explosive force production abilities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the influence of reacting to non-specific visual stimuli on seated and counter-movement vertical jump performance. Seventeen senior amateur soccer players (age: 22.9 ± 2.8 years; height: 172.0 ± 8.5 cm; weight: 71.1 ± 7.3 kg) were recruited as participants for this study. Participants performed seated vertical jumps (SJsit-90º) and counter-movement vertical jumps (CMJ) under two conditions: with reaction to a visual stimulus (REAC) and without reaction (VOL). The order of the conditions was counterbalanced across participants. The statistical analysis revealed a significant decrease in the height of SJsit-90º in the REAC condition compared to the VOL condition (HeightVOL-REAC = 1.88 ± 2.16 cm; p < .001). Although a similar trend was observed, no significant differences were found in CMJ height between conditions (HeightVOL-REAC = 0.70 ± 0.63 cm; p = .277). It is concluded that the inclusion of non-specific visual stimuli to react to significantly and negatively affects the ability to apply force measured through seated vertical jumps. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the potential detrimental effects of external visual stimuli on explosive force production when designing training protocols for soccer players.


Download data is not yet available.


Ashton-Miller, J. A., Wojtys, E. M., Huston, L. J., & Fry-Welch, D. (2001). Can proprioception really be improved by exercises?. Knee Surg Sport Tr A, 9(3), 128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001670100208

Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Glaister, M., & Lockey, R. A. (2015). The validity and reliability of an iPhone app for measuring vertical jump performance. J Sport Sci, 33(15), 1574-1579. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.996184

Becerra, Boryi (2020). Futbol: el juego como neuro-interacción. MC Sportsmor.

Bishop, C., Read, P., Chavda, S., Jarvis, P., Brazier, J., Bromley, T., & Turner, A. (2022). Magnitude or direction? Seasonal variation of interlimb asymmetry in elite academy soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 36(4), 1031-1037. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003565

Bishop, C., Turner, A., Jordan, M., Harry, J., Loturco, I., Lake, J., & Comfort, P. (2022). A framework to guide practitioners for selecting metrics during the countermovement and drop jump tests. Strength Cond J, 44(4), 95-103. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000677

Bisciotti, G. N., Chamari, K., Cena, E., Bisciotti, A., Corsini, A., & Volpi, P. (2019). Anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in soccer. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 59(10), 1724-1738. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09563-X

Blazevich, A. J., & Babault, N. (2019). Post-activation potentiation versus post-activation performance enhancement in humans: historical perspective, underlying mechanisms, and current issues. Front Physiol, 10, 1359. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01359

Bobbert, M. F., Gerritsen, K. G., Litjens, M. C., & Van Soest, A. J. (1996). Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height?. Med Sci Sport Exer, 28, 1402-1412. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199611000-00009

Bosco, C., Luhtanen, P., & Komi, P. V. (1983). A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. Eur J Appl Physiol O, 50, 273-282. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00422166

Brown, S. R., Brughelli, M., & Hume, P. A. (2014). Knee mechanics during planned and unplanned sidestepping: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med, 44, 1573-1588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0225-3

Castro, J. M. C., & Martini, H. A. (2014). Potencia estadística y cálculo del tamaño del efecto en G* Power: complementos a las pruebas de significación estadística y su aplicación en psicología. Salud & sociedad, 5(2), 210-244. https://doi.org/10.22199/S07187475.2014.0002.00006

Caia, J., Doyle, T. L., & Benson, A. C. (2013). A cross-sectional lower-body power profile of elite and subelite Australian soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 27(10), 2836-2841. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182815743

Centeno-Prada, R. A., López, C., & Naranjo-Orellana, J. (2015). Jump percentile: a proposal for evaluation of high level sportsmen. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 55(5), 464-70.

Coratella, G., Tornatore, G., Longo, S., Borrelli, M., Doria, C., Esposito, F., & Cè, E. (2022). The Effects of Verbal Instructions on Lower Limb Muscles' Excitation in Back-Squat. Res Q Exercise Sport, 93(2), 429-435. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2020.1840496

Coutinho, D., Gonçalves, B., Wong, D. P., Travassos, B., Coutts, A. J., & Sampaio, J. (2018). Exploring the effects of mental and muscular fatigue in soccer players' performance. Hum Movement Sci, 58, 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2018.03.004

Della Villa, F., Tosarelli, F., Ferrari, R., Grassi, A., Ciampone, L., Nanni, G. & Buckthorpe, M. (2021). Systematic video analysis of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in professional male rugby players: pattern, injury mechanism, and biomechanics in 57 consecutive cases. Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.1177/23259671211048182

Della Villa, F., Buckthorpe, M., Grassi, A., Nabiuzzi, A., Tosarelli, F., Zaffagnini, S., & Della Villa, S. (2020). Systematic video analysis of ACL injuries in professional male soccer (soccer): injury mechanisms, situational patterns and biomechanics study on 134 consecutive cases. Brit J Sport Med, 54(23), 1423-1432. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-101247

Edwards, T., Weakley, J., Woods, C. T., Breed, R., Benson, A. C., Suchomel, T. J., & Banyard, H. G. (2022). Comparison of Countermovement Jump and Squat Jump Performance Between 627 State and Non-State Representative Junior Australian Soccer Players. J Strength Cond Res, 10-1519. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000004299

Fitzpatrick, J. F., Hicks, K. M., Russell, M., & Hayes, P. R. (2021). The reliability of potential fatigue-monitoring measures in elite youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 35(12), 3448-3452. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003317

Formenti, D., Duca, M., Trecroci, A., Ansaldi, L., Bonfanti, L., Alberti, G., & Iodice, P. (2019). Perceptual vision training in non-sport-specific context: effect on performance skills and cognition in young females. Sci Rep-Uk, 9(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55252-1

França, C., Gouveia, É., Caldeira, R., Marques, A., Martins, J., Lopes, H., ... & Ihle, A. (2022). Speed and agility predictors among adolescent male soccer players. Int J Env Res Pub He 19(5), 2856. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052856

Gokeler, A., Neuhaus, D., Benjaminse, A., Grooms, D. R., & Baumeister, J. (2019). Principles of motor learning to support neuroplasticity after ACL injury: implications for optimizing performance and reducing risk of second ACL injury. Sports Med, 49, 853-865. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01058-0

Hadlow, S. M., Panchuk, D., Mann, D. L., Portus, M. R., & Abernethy, B. (2018). Modified perceptual training in sport: A new classification framework. J Sci Med Sport (Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 950-958). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.01.011

Koppelaar, H., Kordestani Moghadam, P., Khan, K., Kouhkani, S., Segers, G., & van Warmerdam, M. (2019). Reaction time improvements by neural bistability. Behav Sci, 9(3), 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030028

Kung, S. M., Suksreephaisan, T. K., Perry, B. G., Palmer, B. R., & Page, R. A. (2020). The effects of anticipation and visual and sensory performance on concussion risk in sport: A review. Sports Med, 6(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-020-00283-6

Lauersen, J. B., Bertelsen, D. M., & Andersen, L. B. (2014). The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Brit J Sport Med, 48(11), 871-877. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092538

Lee, M. J., Lloyd, D. G., Lay, B. S., Bourke, P. D., & Alderson, J. A. (2019). Different visual stimuli affect muscle activation at the knee during sidestepping. J Sport Sci, 37(10), 1123-1128. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1545276

Leventer, L., Dicks, M., Duarte, R., Davids, K., & Araújo, D. (2015). Emergence of contact injuries in invasion team sports: an ecological dynamics rationale. Sports Med, 45(2), 153-159. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0263-x

Magrini, M. A., Colquhoun, R. J., Sellers, J. H., Conchola, E. C., Hester, G. M., Thiele, R. M., & Smith, D. B. (2018). Can squat jump performance differentiate starters vs. nonstarters in division I female soccer players?. J Strength Cond Res, 32(8), 2348-2355. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002053

Makaruk, H., Porter, J. M., Czaplicki, A., Sadowski, J., & Sacewicz, T. (2012). The role of attentional focus in plyometric training. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 52(3), 319-327.

Marchant, D. C., Griffiths, G., Partridge, J. A., Belsley, L., & Porter, J. M. (2018). The Influence of External Focus Instruction Characteristics on Children's Motor Performance. Res Q Exercise Sport, 89(4), 418-428. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1512075

Marchant, D. C., Greig, M., & Scott, C. (2009). Attentional focusing instructions influence force production and muscular activity during isokinetic elbow flexions. J Strength Cond Res, 23(8), 2358-2366. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b8d1e5

Markovic, G., Dizdar, D., Jukic, I. y Cardinale, M. (2004). Confiabilidad y validez factorial de las pruebas de sentadilla y salto con contramovimiento. J Strength Cond Res, 18 (3), 551-555. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200408000-00028

Mattes, S., & Ulrich, R. (1997). Response force is sensitive to the temporal uncertainty of response stimuli. Percept Psychophys, 59(7), 1089-1097. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03205523

McGuigan, M. R., Doyle, T. L., Newton, M., Edwards, D. J., Nimphius, S., & Newton, R. U. (2006). Eccentric utilization ratio: effect of sport and phase of training. J Strength Cond Res, 20(4), 992-995. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200611000-00042

Meng, F. W., Yao, Z. F., Chang, E. C., & Chen, Y. L. (2019). Team sport expertise shows superior stimulus-driven visual attention and motor inhibition. Plos One, 14(5), e0217056. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.02170563

Morin, J. B., & Samozino, P. (2018). Biomechanics of Training and Testing: Innovative Concepts and Simple Field Methods. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05633-3

Neumann, D. L. (2019). A Systematic Review of Attentional Focus Strategies in Weightlifting. Front. Sports Act. Living, 1(August). https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2019.00007

Pesce, C., Tessitore, A., Casella, R., Pirritano, M., & Capranica, L. (2007). Focusing of visual attention at rest and during physical exercise in soccer players. J Sport Sci, 25(11), 1259-1270. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410601040085

Pinder, R. A., Davids, K., Renshaw, I., & Araújo, D. (2011). Representative learning design and functionality of research and practice in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(1), 146-155. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.33.1.146

Porter, J. M., Nolan, R. P., Ostrowski, E. J., & Wulf, G. (2010). Directing attention externally enhances agility performance: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the efficacy of using verbal instructions to focus attention. Front Psychol, 1, 216. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00216

Rivilla-Garcia, J., Calvo, J. L., & Van den Tillaar, R. (2016). Comparison of throwing velocity between first and second offensive line handball players. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 22(3).

Rivilla-Garcia, J., Grande, I., Sampedro, J., & van den Tillaar, R. (2011). Influence of opposition on ball velocity in the handball jump throw. J Sport Sci Med (Vol. 10).

Rivilla-García, J., Martínez, I., Grande, I., & Sampedro-Molinuevo, J. (2011). Relation between general throwing tests with a medicine ball and specific tests to evaluate throwing velocity with and without opposition in handball. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 6(2), 414-426. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.62.22

Rivilla-García, J., Moreno, A. M., Lorenzo, J., Tillaar, R. van den, & Navandar, A. (2019). Influence of opposition on overhead smash velocity in padel players. Kinesiology, 51(2), 206-212. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.51.2.6

Schumacher, N., Schmidt, M., Reer, R., & Braumann, K. M. (2019). Peripheral vision tests in sports: Training effects and reliability of peripheral perception test. Int J Env Res Pub He, 16(24). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245001

Schroeder, L. E., Peel, S. A., Leverenz, B. H., & Weinhandl, J. T. (2021). Type of unanticipated stimulus affects lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during sidestepping. J Sport Sci, 39(6), 618-628. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1837481

Serpell, B. G., Young, W. B., & Ford, M. (2011). Are the perceptual and decision-making components of agility trainable? A preliminary investigation. J Strength Cond Res, 25(5), 1240-1248. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d682e6

Sheppard, J. M., & Young, W. B. (2006). Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testing. J Sport Sci, 24(9), 919-932. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500457109

Sheppard, J. M., Young, W. B., Doyle, T. L. A., Sheppard, T. A., & Newton, R. U. (2006). An evaluation of a new test of reactive agility and its relationship to sprint speed and change of direction speed. J Sci Med Sport, 9(4), 342-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.05.019

Spiteri, T., McIntyre, F., Specos, C., & Myszka, S. (2018). Cognitive training for agility: The integration between perception and action. Strength Cond J, 40(1), 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000310

Strasburger, H., Rentschler, I., & Jüttner, M. (2011). Peripheral vision and pattern recognition: A review. J Vision, 11(5), 13-13. https://doi.org/10.1167/11.5.13

Struzik, A., Zawadzki, J., & Rokita, A. (2016). Leg stiffness and potential energy in the countermovement phase and the CMJ jump height. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 8(1), 39-44. https://doi.org/10.1515/bhk-2016-0006

Turner, A. N., Bishop, C., Cree, J., Carr, P., McCann, A., Bartholomew, B., & Halsted, L. (2019). Building a high-performance model for sport: A human development-centered approach. Strength Cond J, 41(2), 100-107. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000447

Van Hooren, B., & Bosch, F. (2017). Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? Part II: Implications for exercise. J Sport Sci, 35(23), 2322-2333. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1266019

Van Hooren, B., & Zolotarjova, J. (2017). The difference between countermovement and squat jump performances: a review of underlying mechanisms with practical applications. J Strength Cond Res, 31(7), 2011-2020. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001913

Vestberg, T., Gustafson, R., Maurex, L., Ingvar, M., & Petrovic, P. (2012). Executive functions predict the success of top-soccer players. PloS one, 7(4), e34731. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034731

Williams, A. M., & Jackson, R. C. (2019). Anticipation in sport: Fifty years on, what have we learned and what research still needs to be undertaken?. Psychol Sport Exerc, 42, 16-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.014

Winkelman, N. C., Clark, K. P., & Ryan, L. J. (2017). Experience level influences the effect of attentional focus on sprint performance. Hum Movement Sci, 52, 84-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2017.01.012

Wiseman, S., Alizadeh, S., Halperin, I., Lahouti, B., Snow, N. J., Power, K. E., & Button, D. C. (2020). Neuromuscular Mechanisms Underlying Changes in Force Production during an Attentional Focus Task. Brain Sci, 10(1), 33. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010033

World Medical Association. (2013). World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Jama, 310(20), 2191-2194. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.281053

Young, W. B., Dawson, B., & Henry, G. J. (2015). Agility and change-of-direction speed are independent skills: Implications for training for agility in invasion sports. Int J Sports Sci Coa, 10(1), 159-169. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.10.1.159

Effect of visual stimuli on the jumping ability of amateur soccer players



Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Mateos, G., Sillero-Quintana, M., & Balsalobre-Fernández, C. (2023). Effect of visual stimuli on the jumping ability of amateur soccer players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 19(1), 102–116. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2024.191.09



Performance Analysis of Sport

Most read articles by the same author(s)