Dynamic levels of hormonal, oxidants, insomnia, and stress in badminton athletes who practice morning and evening


  • Andi Ariyandy Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • M. Aryadi Arsyad Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Andi Rizky Arbaim Hasyar Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Meutiah Mutmainnah Abdullah Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Nukhrawi Nawir State University of Makassar, Indonesia
  • Ayun Dwi Astuti Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Iqbal Basri Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Rinvil Renaldi Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Mochmmad Erwin Rachman Muslim University of Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Ainun Zulkiah Surur Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Wahyu Usman Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Fadliana Utami Hasanuddin University, Indonesia




Sport medicine, Melatonin, Oxidative stress, Morning exercise, Night exercise, Insomnia, Stress level


Circadian rhythms are internal mechanisms that regulate various aspects of the human body's physiology and behaviour that are influenced by activity, physicality, and change time in 24 hours. This study aims to compare oxidant levels and hormonal levels based on differences in training times, namely morning and evening, in badminton athletes. This research involved 44 badminton athletes using a purposive sampling technique who were divided into a morning group (n = 22) and an evening group (n = 22). Melatonin levels were measured using the Elabscience Kit (No. E-EL-H2016) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels using spectrophotometry. All research procedures have received ethical approval from the Hasanuddin University Medical Faculty Ethics Commission (Number: 377/UN4. The results of this study indicate that the athlete's melatonin value in the morning was 76.71 ± (29.05-247.45) higher than in the evening 80.43 ± (50.83-155.24) Meanwhile, the athlete's MDA value in the evening was 2.08 ± (0.74–4.57) higher compared to the MDA in the morning of 1.09 ± (0.33–3.71). Meanwhile, based on the insomnia value for evening training, a higher value was obtained compared to morning training, namely 9.50 ± (3-11). However, there was no significant difference in stress levels. The results of the study showed that badminton athletes who trained at night tended to experience sleep disturbances (insomnia) and increased oxidant levels, while hormonal levels, especially melatonin, were higher in athletes who trained in the morning.


Hasanuddin University research and community service institute (LPPM)


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Dynamic levels of hormonal, oxidants, insomnia, and stress in badminton athletes who practice morning and evening



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How to Cite

Ariyandy , A., Arsyad, M. A., Hasyar , A. R. A., Abdullah, M. M., Nawir , N., Astuti , A. D., Basri, M. I., Renaldi , R., Rachman, M. E., Surur , A. Z., Usman, W., & Utami, F. (2023). Dynamic levels of hormonal, oxidants, insomnia, and stress in badminton athletes who practice morning and evening. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 19(2), 522–535. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2024.192.08



Sport Medicine, Nutrition & Health