Relationship between self-evaluative components and moderating contextual factors among university student gymnasium exercisers




Physical education, Body-cathexis, Body image, Body satisfaction, Physical activity participation, Self-esteem


Regular physical activity (PA) is known to improve psychological traits such as self-esteem (SE), body image (BI) and body satisfaction (BS). However, there are apparent mixed reports about the role of PA in promoting psychosocial wellbeing and moderating factors. This study investigated the relationship between SE, BI and BS of gym exercisers at a university and contextual factors of exercise principles; frequency, duration and types of activity, and participants’ demographics variables. Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body image questionnaire and Body satisfaction Scale were administered among randomly selected gym exercisers (n = 92); 60(65.2%) males and 32(34.8 %.) females, aged between 15 and 30 years. Self-esteem showed significant correlations with BS (r = 0.237, p = .023) and with BI (r = 0.287, p = .006). Body satisfaction mean scores were significantly different across duration of exercise sessions (F=3.672, p=.008) in favour of 1.5-hour gym sessions compared to longer or shorter ones. Substantial differences were also observed in BI across favourite physical activities (F = 3.224, p = .026) with post hoc showing Zumba scoring highest. Regression analyses showed significant influence of exercise type (Adjusted R Squared = .040, Beta = .239, p = .023) and gender (Adjusted R Squared = .054, Beta = .239, p = .023) on BI scores. Type and duration of exercise and gender have moderating effects on self-evaluative components. Gym instructors and stakeholders should consider duration for each type of exercise in fitness programmes to optimise participants’ wellbeing. Exercise counselling regarding participants’ self-evaluative components and how these could affect their mental health and overall quality of life in different social-cultural settings need to be explored in future studies.


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Relationship between self-evaluative components and moderating contextual factors among university student gymnasium exercisers



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How to Cite

Mwangi, F. M., Rintaugu, E. G., Toriola, A., Rotich, J., Wilson, M., Tian, X., & Takahashi, K. (2023). Relationship between self-evaluative components and moderating contextual factors among university student gymnasium exercisers. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 19(1), 53–67.



Physical Education / Children & Exercise