Content validation and inter-rater reliability of a protocol for the precision assessment of boccia players


  • José Igor V. Oliveira University of Campinas, Brazil
  • José Irineu Gorla University of Campinas, Brazil
  • Samara M. Nascimento Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
  • José Marcos M. Oliveira Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
  • Pedro P. Paes Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
  • Saulo F. M. Oliveira Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil



Performance analysis of sports, Paralympic sport, Cerebral palsy, Instrument


Purpose: To verify a protocol's content validation and reliability for assessing the precision in the throw of Paralympic boccia in two different steps. Methods: The study was divided into two steps: In step 1, the perception of 15 boccia coaches was evaluated using a questionnaire containing 6 questions about the pertinence of the protocol on a Likert scale (1 to 5). In step 2, reliability was evaluated by two researchers, applying the protocol with two targets (0.5 and 1.0, targets) to verify the short precision (SP), average precision (AP), long precision (LP), and total precision (TP) of 23 boccia athletes (BC1 = 5; BC2 = 7; BC3 = 1; BC4 = 10) in tournaments of the modality. The Content Validity Index (CVI) calculation was applied for the electronic questionnaire, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the agreement between evaluators, and the T-Test for the difference between means. p < .05 was adopted. Results: In the result of the CVI, reliability was noticed through the experts' evaluation (Question1 = 1.0; Q2 = 0.93; Q3 = 0.80; Q4 = 0.80; Q5 = 0.93; Q6 = 0.93). There was an agreement between the evaluators by the ICC in the 0.5 targets for SP (p < .01), AP (p < .01), LP (p < .01), and TP (p < .01), and in the 1.0 target for SP (p < .01), AP (p < .01), LP (p < .01), and TP (p < .01). No differences were found between the means in the t-test. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the protocol meets the established reliability and content validity criteria, allowing its practical use to evaluate the precision in the boccia.


Download data is not yet available.


Bailey, S. (2008). Athlete First: A History of the Paralympic Movement. John Wiley & Sons, 1-281.

Bertoldi, R., da Silva, M. A., Ribeiro Bandeira, P. F., Bandeira, D. R., & Mazo, J. Z. (2021). Construction and Content Validity Evidences of Coping Inventory for Brazilian Paralympic Athletes in Competition Situations. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 00(00), 1-14.

Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284-290.

Clark, R. A., Bryant, A. L., Pua, Y., McCrory, P., Bennell, K., & Hunt, M. (2010). Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance. Gait & Posture, 31(3), 307-310.

Doewes, R. I., Nuryadin, I., Hendarto, S., Adi, P. W., Shidiq, A. A. P., & Putro, B. N. (2020). The development of boccia ball throwing test instruments on palsy cerebral athletes. European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, 7(3), 265-273.

Dunn, J. G. H., Bouffard, M., & Rogers, W. T. (1999). Assessing Item Content-Relevance in Sport Psychology Scale-Construction Research: Issues and Recommendations. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 3(1), 15-36.

Dwi Yulianto, W., Sumaryanti, -, & Yudhistira, D. (2021). Content Validity of Circuit Training Program and Its Effects on The Aerobic Endurance of Wheelchair Tennis Athletes. International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science, 9(3), 60.

Fong, D. T. P., Yam, K. Y., Chu, V. W. S., Cheung, R. T. H., & Chan, K. M. (2012). Upper limb muscle fatigue during prolonged Boccia games with underarm throwing technique. Sports Biomechanics, 11(4), 441-451.

Gaya, A. R., Gaya, A., Pedretti, A., & Mello, J. (2021). Projeto esporte Brasil: Manual of measurements, tests, and evaluations. Retrieved from:

Guttmann, L. (1967). History of the National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury. Paraplegia, 5(3), 115-126.

Holanda, F. L. de, Marra, C. C., & Cunha, I. C. K. O. (2019). Professional competence of nurses in emergency services: evidence of content validity. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 72(Suppl 1), 66-73.

Huang, P. C., Pan, P. J., Ou, Y. C., Yu, Y. C., & Tsai, Y. S. (2014). Motion analysis of throwing Boccia balls in children with cerebral palsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(2), 393-399.

Hyrkäs, K., Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, K., & Oksa, L. (2003). Validating an instrument for clinical supervision using an expert panel. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40(6), 619-625.

Impellizzeri, F. M., & Marcora, S. M. (2009). Test validation in sport physiology: lessons learned from clinimetrics. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4(2), 269-277.

International Paralympic Committee. (2021). Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games (Issue April updated).

Kataoka, M., Okuda, K., & Iwata, A. (2020). Throwing distance and competitive performance of Boccia players. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 32(9), 574-577.

Lapresa, D., Santesteban, G., Arana, J., Anguera, M. T., & Aragón, S. (2017). Observation System for Analyzing Individual Boccia BC3. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 29(5), 721-734.

Longmuir, P. E., Boyer, C., Lloyd, M., Borghese, M. M., Knight, E., Saunders, T. J., Boiarskaia, E., Zhu, W., & Tremblay, M. S. (2017). Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment (CAMSA): Validity, objectivity, and reliability evidence for children 8-12 years of age. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 6(2), 231-240.

Lynn M. R. (1986). Determination and Quantification Of Content Validity. In Nursing Research (Vol. 35, Issue 6, pp. 382-386).

Miarka, B., Hayashida, C. R., Julio, U. F., Calmet, M., & Franchini, E. (2011). Objectivity of FRAMI-Software for Judo Match Analysis. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 11(2), 254-266.

Oliveira, J. I. V. de, Oliveira, L. I. G. L. de, Costa, M. da C., Arruda, S. F. de, & Oliveira, S. F. M. de. (2021). Protocol for Assessing the Precision of Paralympic Boccia Players. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 27(6), 616-620.

Pasquali, L. (2010). Psychological instrumentation: fundamentals and practices.

Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V. (2007). Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 30(4), 459-467.

Ramírez, J. J. A., Hoyos Cuartas, L. A., & Mendivelso Leal, R. H. (2018). Design of a system for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the throw in Boccia. Revista Politécnica, 14(27), 57-67.

Reina, R., Domínguez-Díez, M., Urbán, T., & Roldán, A. (2018). Throwing distance constraints regarding kinematics and accuracy in high-level boccia players. Science and Sports, 33(5), 299-306.

Silver, J. R. (2012). Ludwig guttmann (1899-1980), stoke mandeville hospital and the paralympic games. Journal of Medical Biography, 20(3), 101-105.

Villarejo, D., Ortega, E., Gómez, M.-Á., & Palao, J.-M. (2014). Design, validation, and reliability of an observational instrument for ball possessions in rugby union. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14(3), 955-967.

WorldBoccia. (2021a). BISFed International Boccia Classification Rules. In BISFed (Issue October).

WorldBoccia. (2021b). BISFed International Boccia Rules. In BISFed.

Xie, Y., & DeVellis, R. F. (1992). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Contemporary Sociology, 21(6), 876.

Content validation and inter-rater reliability of a protocol for the precision assessment of boccia players



Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Oliveira, J. I. V., Gorla, J. I., Nascimento, S. M., Oliveira, J. M. M., Paes, P. P., & Oliveira, S. F. M. (2023). Content validation and inter-rater reliability of a protocol for the precision assessment of boccia players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 18(4), 964–973.



Performance Analysis of Sport