Standing long jump and handheld halters: Is jumping performance improved?
Keywords:Standing long jump, Halters, Jumping distance
The purpose of this experimental study was to document the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the standing long jump without extra loading and with handheld weights (halters) of different mass and to investigate any association between the former and jumpers' performance. Fifteen subjects (13 males and 2 females) between the ages of 19 and 21 years old participated in this horizontal prospective study. Each participant performed standing long jumps. Regarding the jumping technique, free arm swinging without or with handheld halters of different weights (1.5 kg and 3 kg in each hand) was used. The subjects repeated the jumping set (consisted of free arm swinging jump, jumping with 3 kg and then with 6 kg handheld halters) three times and the three different technique jumps were performed in a random order. The jumping distance was significantly increased 7 cm (2.7%) with 3 kg handheld halters compared to free arm jumps (p=0.006). In addition the subjects jumped 5 cm further with 6 kg handheld weights (2.67±0.27 m) than without (2.62±0.21 m) (statistically significant difference, p=0.005). The horizontal displacement of the center of mass was significantly increased with 3 kg and 6 kg handheld compared to free arm jumps (p=0.007, p=0.005 respectively). Take off angle of center of mass difference was statistically significant between 0 kg (36±5º) and 6 kg (29±5º) handheld weights (12.13% decrease, p=0.001). A gradual significant increase in the horizontal take off velocity of the center of mass was depicted between free arm and 3 kg halters jump (3.5% increase) and 3 kg weights and 6 kg ones (3.69% increase). In conclusion greater distance is achievable during a loaded standing long jump due to 1) horizontal translation of the center of mass, 2) the greater ground reaction force that is generated, 3) decrease in take off angle of center of mass and 4) increase in the horizontal take off velocity of the center of mass.
Aguado, X., Izquierdo, M., Montesinos, J.L. Kinematic and kinetic factors related to the standing long jump performance. J Hum Movement Stud. 1997; 32:157-169.
Ariel, G.B. The Ariel Performance Analysis System. 1990; SPIE. 1356:76-78. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.23886
Ashby, B.M. & Delp, S.L. Optimal control simulations reveal mechanisms by which arm movement improves standing long jump performance. J Biomech. 2006; 39(9):1726-1734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.04.017
Ashby, B.M. & Heegaard, J.H. Role of arm motion in the standing long jump. J Biomech. 2002; 35: 1631-1637. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00239-7
Ashby, B.M. Optimal control simulations demonstrate how using halters (hand-held weights) can increase standing long jump performance. XXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics and 29th Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, July 32-August 5, 2005; Cleveland, OH, http://www.exponent.com.
Butcher, M.T. & Bertram, J.E.A. Jump distance increases while carrying handheld weights: Impulse, history, and jump performance in a simple lab exercise. J Scie Education Technol.2004; 33: 285-297. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOST.0000031267.98644.98
Ebert, J. Der Pentathlonsprung. Abh. Sochs. Akad. Wiss. Philo-Hisot. Klasse. 1963; 56:35-65.
Hay, J.G. Citius, altius, longius (faster, higher, longer): The biomechanics of jumping for distance. J Biomech. 1993; 26 (1): 7-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(93)90076-Q
Horita, T., Kitamura, K., Kohmo, N. Body configuration and joint moment analysis during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males. Medi Scie Sports Exer. 1991; 23: 1068-1077. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199109000-00012
Lenoir, M., De Clercq, D., Laporte, W. The "how" and "why" of the ancient Greek long jump with weights. A five-fold symmetric jump in a row? J Sports Scie. 2005; 23: 1033-1043. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400022037
Linthorne, N., Guzman, M., Bridgett, L. Optimum take-off angle in the long jump. J Sports Scie. 2005; 23:703-712. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400022011
Minetti, A. & Ardigo, L. Halters used in ancient Olympic long Jump. Nature. 2002; 420 (69):141-142. https://doi.org/10.1038/420141a
Tasch, P. Conservation of momentum in antiquity: A note on the prehistory of the principle of jet propulsion. Isis.1952; 43:251-252. https://doi.org/10.1086/348113
Thaller, S., Sust, M., Tilp, M. Individual effects of additional weights used in ancient Greek Olympic pentathlon. (Abstract) 8th ECSS Congress, 2003; Salsburg, pp 387.
Wakai, M. & Linthorne, N.P. Optimum take-off angle in the standing long jump. Hum Movement Sci. 2005; 24(1): 81-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2004.12.001
Ward-Smith, A.J. The application of modern methods of biomechanics to the evaluation of jumping performance in ancient Greece. J Sports Sci. 1995; 13: 223-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419508732231
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.