Talent selection criteria for olympic distance triathlon
Talent Selection allows to optimize the resources available for sporting talent in order to design the best strategy to achieve top level sporting results. Because of the unknown aspects of the performance model in Olympic triathlon the TS variables and their relationship with a future performance are far-off from being identified in order to make a talent prospective study possible. Currently most triathlon federations evaluate only the juvenile performance expressed in time trials test on swimming and running. The aim of the present study was to find the most appropriate variables for the Talent Selection in Olympic Triathlon, verifying those widely used by means of a retrospective research about particular juvenile features recognized in top world triathlon athletes. The variables are considered as input variables of a Talent selection model based on Fuzzy Logic that overcome the limits of traditional models based on cut-off selection. The present findings indicate that the exclusive evaluation of juvenile running and swimming performance in order to select triathlon talent is not appropriate. Diagnosis criteria should include several other variables that should also take into account mental ability, speed of abilities development, utilization of endogenous and exogenous resources, load and stress tolerance as several leading countries have done recently.
Abbott, A., Collins, D., Russell, M., Sowerby, K. Conceptual Models of Talent Detection and Identification – Talent Identification and Development: An Academic Review. Edinburgh: Sportscotland; 2002.
Bernard, T., Hausswirth, C., Le Meur, Y., Bignet, F., Dorel, S., Brisswalter, J. Distribution of power output during the cycling stage of a Triathlon World Cup. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2009; 41(6):1296-302. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318195a233
Bray, M.S., Hagberg, J.M., Perusse, L., Rankinen, T., Roth, S.M., Wolfarth, B., Bouchard, C. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: The 2006-2007 update. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2009; 41(1):34-73. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181844179
Brutsaert, T.D., Parra, E.J. What Makes a Champion? Explaining Variation in Human Athletic Performance. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 2006; 151:109-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2005.12.013
Dolmann, J., Norton, K., Norton, L. Evidence for the secular trends in children's physical activity behavior. Brit J Sport Med. 2005; 39:892-897. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.016675
Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R.T., Tesch-Römer, C. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychol Rev. 1993; 100:363-406. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363
Feng, X.Y., Xiu, Y.C. Fuzzy Math Model. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1984; 6(4):374.
Gianfelici, A., Tamburri, R., Miglio, M., Migliorini, S., Di Cave, P., Balì, F., Pecorelli, G., Faina, M. Anthropometric and Physiological Profile of Young male Athletes of Olympic Triathlon. In: XXX FIMS World Congress of Sports Medicine. Archivos de medicina del deporte. 2009; 26(129):31-35.
Hoare, D. The Australian national talent search programme. Coaching Focus. 1996; 31:3-4.
Hohmann, A., Bügner, J., Edelmann-Nusser, J., Kellemann, M., Döbler, S. Non linear identification of different states of performance as order parameters in athletic training process. In: G Mester, H King, E Strüder, E Tsolakidis, A Ostenburg. Profiles and perspectives. 6th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Colonia: Sport & Buch Strauss; 2001.
Hohmann, A., Seidel, L. Scientific aspects of talent development. Journal of physical Education. 2003; 40:1.
Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Chollet, D., Et Al. Ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake in present triathletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 2000; 25(2):102-13. https://doi.org/10.1139/h00-007
Menaspa, P., Sassi, A., Impellizzeri, F.M. Aerobic fitness variables do not predict the professional career of young cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2010; 42:805-812. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ba99bc
Millet, G.P., Vleck, V.E., Bentley, D.J. Physiological differences between cycling and running. Sports Med. 2009; 39(3):179-206. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939030-00002
Millet, G.P., Groslambert, A., Barbier, B., Rouillon, J.D., Candau, R.B. Modelling the relationships between training, anxiety, and fatigue in elite athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2005; 26(6):492-8. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-821137
Millet, P.G., Dréano, P., Bentley, D.J. Physiological characteristics of elite short- and long-distance triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 88:427–430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0731-0
Papić, V., Rogulj, N., Pleština, V. Identification of sport talents using a web-oriented expert system with a fuzzy module. Expert Syst Appl. 2009; 36(5):8830-8838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2008.11.031
Rogulj, N., Papić, V. Applying expert system in the process of selection in sport. In: Proceedings. New Technologies in Sports. Sarajevo; 2007.
Rogulj, N., Papić, V., Pleština, V. Development of the Expert System for Sport Talents Detection. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. 2006; 3(9):1752-1755.
Tomkinson, G.R., Léger, L.A., Olds, T.S., Cazorla, G. Secular trends in the performance of children and adolescents (1980-2000): An analysis of 55 studies of the 20 m shuttle run in 11 countries. Sports Med. 2003; 33:285-300. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333040-00003
Vleck, V.E., Bentley, D.J., Millet, G.P., Et Al. Pacing during an elite Olympic distance triathlon: comparison between male and female competitors. J Sci Med Sport. 2008; 11(4):424-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.01.006
Williams, A.G., Folland, J.P. Similarity of polygenic profiles limits the potential for elite human physical performance. Journal of Physiology. 2008; 586:113-121. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141887
Zhou, S., Robson, S.J., King, M.J., Et Al. Correlations between short-course triathlon performance and physiological variables determined in laboratory cycle and treadmill tests. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1997; 37(2):122-30.