Training load quantification in triathlon
Keywords:Performance, Heart rate, TRIMP, Training zones, RPE
There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP), the session (RPE), Lucia's TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathlon simple application.
Achten, J., Jeukendrup, A.E. Heart rate monitoring: applications and limitations. Sports Med. 2003; 33:517-538. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333070-00004
Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Whitt, M.C., Irwin, M.L., Swartz, A.M., Strath, S.J., O'brien, W.L., Bassett, D.R., Schmitz, K.H., Emplaincourt, P.O., Jacobs, D.R., Leon, A.S. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32: S498-504. ttps://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200009001-00009
Banister, E.W., Calvert, T.W. Planning for future performance: implications for long term training. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1980; 5(3):170-6.
Bassett, D.R., Flohr, J., Duey, W.J. Metabolic responses to drafting during front crawl swimming. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991; 23:744-747. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199106000-00015
Battista, R.A., Foster, C., Andrew, J., Wright, G., Lucia, A., Porcari, J.P. Physiologic responses during indoor cycling. J Strength Cond Res. 2008; 22:1236-1241. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318173dbc4
Bernard, T., Hausswirth, C., Le Meur, Y., Bignet, F., Dorel, S., Brisswalter, J. Distribution of Power Output during the Cycling Stage of a Triathlon World Cup. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41(6):1296-1302. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318195a233
Bompa, T. Theory and Methodology of Training. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt; 1983.
Bompa, T. Theory and Methodology of Training. McGraw-Hill; 1994.
Bompa, T. Periodización. Teoría y metodología del entrenamiento. Barcelona: Ed. Hispano-Europea; 2003.
Borresen, J., Lambert, M.I. Quantifying Training Load: A Comparison of Subjective and Objective Methods. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2008; 3:16-30. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.1.16
Borresen, J., Lambert, M.I. The Quantification of Training Load, the Training Response and the Effect on Performance. Sports Med. 2009; 39(9):779-795. https://doi.org/10.2165/11317780-000000000-00000
Cejuela Anta, R., Pérez Turpin, J., Villa Vicente, J., Cortell Tormo, J., & Rodríguez Marroyo, J. (2008). An analysis of performance factors in sprint distance triathlon. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 2(2), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2007.22.01
Chatard, J.C., Wilson, B. Drafting Distance in Swimming. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35:1176–1181. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000074564.06106.1F
Edwards, S. The heart rate monitor book. Sacramento: Fleet Feet Press; 1993.
Esteve-Lanao, J. El entrenamiento de la fuerza y resistencia en corredores: últimas tendencias y aplicaciones. In: A Jiménez. Avances en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte: Entrenamiento de Fuerza. Madrid: Escuela de Estudios Universitarios Real Madrid Universidad Europea; 2007.
Esteve-Lanao, J., Lucia, A., Dekoning, J.J., Foster, C. How do humans control physiological strain during strenuous endurance exercise? PLoS One. 2008; 13; 3(8): e2943. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002943
Faria, E.W., Parker, D.L., Faria, I.E. The Science of Cycling. Physiology and Training – Part 1. Sports Med. 2005; 35(4):285-312. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535040-00002
Fixx, J.F. The Complete Book of Running. New York: Random House; 1977.
Foster, C., Florhaug, J.A., Franklin, J., Gottschall, L., Hrovatin, L.A., Parker, S., Doleshal, P., Dodge, C. A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res. 2001; 15:109-115.
Gardner, A.S., Stephens, S., Martin, D.T., Lawton, E., Lee, H., Jenkins, D. Accuracy of SRM and Power Tap Power Monitoring Systems for Bicycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004; 36(7):1252-1258. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000132380.21785.03
Hayes, P.R., Quinn, M.D. A mathematical model for quantifying training. Eur J Appl physiol. 2009; 106:839-847. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1084-8
Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Chollet, D., Boussana, A., Prefaut, C. The influence of prior cycling on biomechanical and cardiorespiratory response profiles during running in triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998; 77(1-2):98-105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050306
Iliuta, G., Dimistrescu, C. Criterii medicale si psihice ale evaluarii si conducerii antrenamentului atletitor. Sportul de Performanta. 1978; 53:49-64.
Lamb, D.H. Physiology of Exercise: Responses and adaptation. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company; 1984.
Leweke, F., Bruck, K., Olschewski, H. Temperature effects on ventilatory rate, heart rate, and preferred pedal rate during cycle ergometry. J Appl Physiol. 1995; 79(3):781-85.
Lucía, A., Hoyos, J., Carvajal, A., Chicharro, J.L. Heart rate response to professional road cycling: The Tour de France. Int J Sports Med. 1999; 20:167-172. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971112
Lucía, A., Hoyos, J., Chicharro, J.L. Preferred pedaling cadence in professional cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 33:1361-1366.
Mcardle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Katch, V.L. Exercise Physiology: Energy, nutrition and human performance. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1986.
Mccole, S.D., Claney, K., Conte, J.C. Energy expenditure during bicycling. J Appl Physiol. 1990; 68:748-753.
Millet, G.O., Vleck, V.E. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training. Br J Sports Med. 2000; 34(5):384-90. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.34.5.384
Millet, G.P., Millet, G.Y., Hofmann, M.D., Candau, R.B. Alterations in running economy and mechanics after maximal cycling in triathletes: influence of performance level. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21(2):127-32. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8866
Miyashita, M. Method of calculating mechanical power in swimming the breast stroke. Res Quart. 1974; 45:128-137.
Morton, R.H., Fitz-Clarke, J.R., Banister, E.W. Modeling human performance in running. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69(3):1171-7.
Pendergast, D., Zamparo, P., Di Prampero, P.E., Capelli, C., Cerretelli, P., Termin, A., Craig, A., Bushnell, D., Paschke, D., Mollendorf, J. Energy balance of human locomotion in water. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 90:377-386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0919-y
Péronnet, F. Maratón. Barcelona: INDE; 2001.
Rusko, H.K., Pulkkinen, A., Saalasti, S., Et Al. Pre-prediction of EPOC: a tool for monitoring fatigue accumulation during exercise? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35(5):S183. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200305001-01014
Seiler, K.S., Kjerland, G.Ø. Quantifying training intensity distribution in elite endurance athletes: is there evidence for an "optimal" distribution? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006; 16:49-56. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2004.00418.x
Sweet, T.W., Foster, C., Mcguigan, M.R., Et Al. Quantitation of resistance training using the session rating of perceived exertion method. J Strength Cond Res. 2004; 18(4):796-802.
Vercruyssen, F., Brisswalter, J., Hausswirth, C., Bernard, T., Bernard, O., Vallier, J.M. Influence of cycling cadence on subsequent running performance in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34:530-536. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200203000-00022
Vleck, V., Bentley, D.J., Millet, G.P., Bürgi, A. Pacing during an elite Olympic distance triathlon: Comparison between male and female competitors. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2007; 11(4):424-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.01.006
Whitt, F.R., Wilson, D.G. Bicycling Science. Cambridge: MIT Press; 1982.
Wood, R.E., Hayter, S., Ttom, D., Rowbo Stewart, I. Applying a mathematical model to training adaptation in a distances runner. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005; 94:310-316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1319-2
Zamparo, P., Gatta, G., Pendergast, D., Capelli, C. Active and passive drag: the role of trunk incline. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009; 106:195-205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1007-8
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.