Volleyball coaches behavior assessment through systematic observation
Keywords:CBAS, Feedback, Coaching behaviour, Systematic observation, Volleyball
The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the practice behaviors of 12 Greek Volleyball National Division coaches, mean age 47.36 (SD=6.1) through feedback that they provided to their athletes throughout the 2010-11 seasons. Verbal and non verbal behaviors were video recorded during four practices, of each coach. A total of 13.400 behaviors were observed and were coded using the Revised Coaching Behavior Recording Form which corresponded to the 12 categories of the instrument. The analyses of videotaped behaviors were made by two trained observers who were checked in the internal and external reliability. Results indicated that there were 279.11 coded coaching behaviors in each training session. A large proportion of reported coaching behaviors 17.38% (n=48.34) were about "Tactical Instruction", followed by "General Instruction" 15.92% (n=44.45) and "Technical Instruction" 12.42% (n=34.68). "Encouragement" and "Motivation" were 10.76% and 10.73% respectively. "Other Comments" (8.67%) and "Demonstration" (8.26%) were in lower rate. ANOVA revealed that there were not differences between 1st and 2nd division coaching behavior, instead of "Criticism" (p < 0.05) with 2nd division coaches have more comments and "Non verbal reward" (p < 0.05) which 1st division coaches were used more often.
Bloom, G.A., Crumpton, R., Anderson, J.E. A systematic observation study of the teaching behaviors of an expert basketball coach. The Sport Psychologist. 1999; 13:157-170. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.13.2.157
Chen, I., Chang, C., Hung, C., Chen, L., Hung, T. Investigation of underlying psychological factors in elite table tennis players. International Journal of Table Tennis Science. 2010; 6:48-50.
Cicchetti, D.V. Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychol Assessment. 1994; 6:284-290. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35126.96.36.1994
Cohen, J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 1960; 20:37-46. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000104
Côté, J., Salmela, J.H., Russell, S. The knowledge of high performance gymnastic coaches: Methodological framework. The Sport Psychologist. 1995; 9:65-75. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.9.1.65
Cushion, C., Jones, R. A systematic observation of professional top-level youth soccer coaches. Journal of Sport Behavior. 2001.
Duda, J. Goal perspectives research in sport: Pushing the boundaries and clarifying some misunderstandings. In: GC Roberts (Ed.). Advances in motivation in sport and exercise. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2001.
Duda, J., Ballaguer, I. Coach-created motivational climate. In: S Jowett, D Lavallee (Eds.). Social Psychology in Sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2007.
Durand-Bush, N. Training: Blood, sweat, tears. In: JH Salmela (Ed.). Great job coach! Getting the edge from proven winners. Ottawa: Potentium; 1996.
Erickson, K. State space grids: First application of a novel methodology to examine coach-athlete interactions in competitive youth sport. Ontario: Queen's University Kingston; 2009.
Fleiss, J.L. Statistical methods for rates and proportions. NY: Wiley; 1981.
Harrison, J.M., Preece, L.A., Blakemore, C.L., Richards, R.P., Wilkinson, C., Fellingham, G.W. Effects of two instructional models –Skill teaching and Mastery learning –on skill development, knowledge, self –efficacy, and game play in volleyball. J Teach Phys Educ. 1999; 19:34-57. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.19.1.34
Horton, S., Baker, J., Deakin, J. Experts in action: A systematic observation of 5 national team coaches. Int J Sport Psychol. 2005; 36(4):299-319.
Hastie, P.A. An instrument for recording coaches' comments and instructions during time-outs. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1999; 22(4):467-478.
Lacy, A.C., Darst, P.W. Evolution of a systematic observation system: The ASU coaching observation instrument. J Teach Phys Educ. 1984; 3:59-66. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.3.3.59
Lacy, A.C., Darst, P.W. Systematic observation of behaviors of winning high school head football coaches. J Teach Phys Educ. 1985; 4:256-270. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.4.4.256
Lacy, A.C., Goldston. Behavior analysis of male and female coaches in high School girls' basketball. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1990; 13:29-39.
Laughlin, N., Laughlin, S. The relationship between similarity in perceptions of teacher/coach leader behaviour and evaluations of their effectiveness. Int J Sport Psychol. 1994; 22:396-410.
Mageau, G.A., Vallerand, R.J. The coach –athlete relationship: a motivational model. J Sport Sci. 2003; 21:883-904. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000140374
Malina, R.M., Clark, M.A. Youth Sports: Perspectives for a New Century. Monterey: Coaches Choice; 2003.
Mesquita, I., Sobrinho, A., Rosado, A. A systematic observation of youth amateur volleyball coaches behaviours. International journal of applied sports sciences. 2008; 20(2):37-58.
More, K., Franks, I. Analysis and modification of verbal coaching behaviour: The usefulness of a data-driven intervention strategy. Journal of sport science. 1996; 14:523-543. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419608727739
Nash, C., Collins, D. Tacit knowledge in expert coaching: Science or Art? Quest. 2006; 58:465-477. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2006.10491894
Nicaise, V., Cogėrino, G., Fairclough, S., Bois, J., Davis, K. Teacher feedback and interactions in physical education: Effects of student gender and physical activities. European Physical Education Review. 2007; 13(3):319-337. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X07081799
Pereira, F., Mesquita, I., Graca, A. Accountability systems and instructional approaches in youth volleyball training. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2009; 8:366-373.
Reinboth, M., Duda, J., Ntoumanis, N. Dimensions of coaching behavior, need satisfaction, and the psychological and physical welfare of young athletes. Motiv Emotion. 2004; 28(3):297-313. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MOEM.0000040156.81924.b8
Smith, R., Smoll, F. Self –esteem and children's reactions to youth sport coaching behaviors: A field study of self –enhancement processes. Dev Psychol. 1990; 26(6):987-993. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.527
Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., Curtis, B. Coaching behaviours in little league baseball. In: FL Smoll, RE Smith (Eds.). Psychological perspectives in youth sport. Washington DC: Hemisphere; 1978.
Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., Hunt, E. A system for the behavioral assessment of athletic coaches. Research Quarterly. 1977; 48(2):401-407.
Smoll, F.L., Smith, R.E. Children and youth in sport: A biopsychosocial perspective. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt; 2002.
Smoll, F.L., Smith, R.E. Enhancing coach-athlete relationships: Cognitive-behavioral principles and procedures. In: J Dosil (Ed.). The Sport Psychologist's Handbook: A Guide for Sport-Specific Performance Enhancement. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2006.
Smoll, F.L., Smith, R.E., Barnett, N.P., Everett, J.J. Enhancement of children's self-esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches. J Appl Psychol. 1993; 78(4):602-610. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.602
Sousa, C., Cruz, J., Torregrosa, M., Vilches, D., Viladrich, C. Evaluación conductual y programa de asesoramiento personalizado a entrenadores (PAPE) de deportistas jóvenes. Revista de Psicología del Deporte. 2006; 15(2):263-278.
Tharp, R.G., Gallimore, R. What a coach can teach a teacher. Psychol Today. 1976; 9(8):75-78.
Trudel, P., Côté, J., Bernard, D. Systematic observations of youth Ice Hockey coaches during games. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1996; 19(1):50-65.
Tzioumakis, J., Michalopoulou, M., Aggelousis, N., Papaioannou, A., Christodoulidis, T. Youth coaches behavior assessment through systematic observation. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education. 2009; 7(3):344-354.
Vallerand, R.J., Reid, G. On the relative effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on males' and females' intrinsic motivation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 1988; 20:239-250. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079930
Van Der Mars, H. Basic recording tactics. In: PW Darst, DB Zakrajsek, VH Mancini (Eds.). Analyzing Physical Education and Sport Instruction. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1989.
Watkins, M.W., Pacheco, M. Interobserver agreement in behavioral research: Importance and calculation. Journal of Behavioral Education. 2001; 10(4):205-212. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012295615144
Weiss, M. Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective. Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology; 2004.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.