The effect of an intercultural Physical Education Program in comparison to the typical one on students’ social skills learning
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an intercultural physical education program (IPEP), in comparison to the typical physical education program (TPEP), on students’ social skills learning. Thirty-two upper elementary students of different origin (Greek and foreign) were equally distributed into an experimental (IPE) and a control (TPE) group. A student behavior observation scale was used to evaluate the social skills ‘relationships’, ‘verbal interaction’, ‘rewards’, ‘help’, and ‘goals’. After the initial measurement, each group attended the respective 16-lesson physical education program, and then it was post- and retention tested. Results indicated that students in the IPE group, as opposed to those in the TPE group, learned to interact appropriately, to provide rewards and help, and to have better relations with their peers, independently of their origin. Also, Greek students in the IPE group improved significantly their ability to set and achieve goals while foreign students outperformed their foreign peers in the TPE group both in goal setting and peer relations. It seems that the IPEP can have a significant impact on learning certain social skills by all students involved in it.
Athanasouli-Reppa, A., Lazaridou, A., & Lyman, L. (2005). Emotional intelligence and intercultural pedagogy: an exemplar for the approach of the multicultural class. In P. Georgogiannis (Ed.), Intercultural education. Paper presented at the 8th International Conference, Patras, Greece. ΚΕ.D.ΕΚ. [Ιn Greek].
Bennett, J.M. (2008). On becoming a global soul. In V. Savicki (Ed.), Developing intercultural competence and transformation: Theory, research and application in international education (pp. 13-31). Sterling: Stylus.
Bombas, L. (2001). Linguistic and non-linguistic issues of 'our foreign students': The opinion of school principals as an opportunity for reflection and dialogue. Paper presented at the 4th Annual Convention of Intercultural Education, Patras, Greece. [Ιn Greek].
Christodoulides, E., Derri, V., Tsivitanidou, O., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2012). Differences in social skills of Cypriot students in the physical education class. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(3), pp. 371-380.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cordova, I.R., & Love, R. (1987). Multicultural education: Issues, concerns and commitments. North Central Association Quarterly, 61(3), pp.391-398.
Derri, V. (2007). Physical education in the beginning of the 21st century. Standards, goals and objectives in primary education. Thessaloniki: Christodoulidi Publications. [In Greek].
Digelidis, N., Theodorakis, Y., Zetou, H., & Dimas, I. (2006). Physical Education 5th-6th Grade of Primary School: Teachers' Book. Athens: Greek Ministry of Education. [Ιn Greek].
Dowd, T., & Tierney, J. (2006). Teaching social skills to youth. USA: Boys Town Press.
Forquin, J.C. (2006). École et culture. EPS et Société Infos, 26, pp.1-7.
Georgogiannis, P. (1997). Issues of intercultural education. Athens: Gutenberg. [In Greek].
Giavrimis, P., & Papanis, E. (2007). GIAVRIMIS P, PAPANIS Ε. Assessment of social competence and antisocial behavior of school age children. Available on line at http://epapanis.blogspot.com/2007/09/ph.html [Ιn Greek].
Goldstein, H., & Gallagher, T.M. (1992). Strategies for promoting the social-communication competence of young children with specific language impairment. In S.R. Odom, S.L. McConnell & A.M. McEvoy (Eds.), Social competence of young children with disabilities (pp.189-213). Baltimore: Brookers.
Gotovos, A. (1998). Racism, Social, psychological and pedagogical aspects of an ideology and a practice. Athens. [Ιn Greek].
Gotovos, A., & Markou G. (2003). Repatriated and foreign students in Greek Education. Athens: Institute of Expatriate and Intercultural Education. [Ιn Greek].
Green, K., & Hardman, K. (2000). Physical Education: A Reader. Oxford: Meyer and Meyer sport (UK) Ltd.
Greendorfer, S.A. (1983). A challenge for sociocultural sport studies. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 54(3), pp.18-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1983.10629517
Hastie, P., & Buchanan, A. (2000). Teaching Responsibility through Sport Education: Prospects of a coalition. Res Q Exercise Sport, 71(1), pp.25-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.10608877
Hayden, M., & Wong, C.S.D. (1997). The International Baccalaureate: International education and cultural preservation. Educational Studies, 23(3), pp.349-361. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305569970230302
Hellison, D. (2003). Teaching responsibility through physical activity. USA: Human Kinetics.
Ikonomopoulos, G., Fragouli, M., & Derri, V. (2007). Indicative lesson plans for the fifth and sixth grade. In V. Derri (Ed.). Physical education in the beginning of the 21st century. Standards, goals and objectives in primary education. Thessaloniki: Christodoulidi Publications, pp 395-426, 466-514. [Ιn Greek].
Kallusky, J. (1991). A qualitative evaluation of a physical education mentoring program for at-risk children. California State University, Chico.
Kallusky, J. (2000). In School Programs. In D. Hellison, N. Cutforth, J. Kallusky, T. Martinek, M. Parker & J. Stiehl (Eds.), Youth Development and Physical Activity. Linking Universities and Communities (pp.87-114). Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
Keane, S.P.. & Cogner, J.C. (1981). The implications of communication development for social skills training. J Pediatr Psychol, 6(4), pp.369-381. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/6.4.369
Kellis, I., Vernadakis, N., Albanidis, E., Derri, V., & Kourtesses, T. (2010). The development of a student's behaviors' self evaluation scale (SBSS) in multicultural physical education class settings. Educational Research and Review, 5(11), pp. 637-645.
Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2007). Physical education in the beginning of the 21st century: standards, goals and objectives. Theoretical approaches. Thessaloniki: Christodoulidi Publications. [Ιn Greek].
Kioumourtzoglou, E., Theodorakis, I., Avgerinos, A., Kellis, I., Papaharisis, V., Hasandra, M., Arvaniti, N., Gounaridis, S., & Makras, S. (2001). Olympic Education: From Theory to Praxis. Athens: Livani. [Ιn Greek].
Landis, J.R. & Koch, G.G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), pp.159-174. https://doi.org/10.2307/2529310
Lifka, B.J. (1990). Hiding Beneath the Stairwell – Dropout prevention Program for Hispanic Youth. JOPERD, August, pp.40-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1990.10604548
Likiardopoulou, S. (2003). Few thoughts on intercultural education. School and Home, 450, pp.157-159. [Ιn Greek].
Lund, J., Timken, G., Tannehill, D., Oslin, J., Park, M., Stiehl, J., & Van der Mars, H. (2005). Designing a standards-based curriculum. Physical Education Leadership Bulletin. Available on line at http://member.aahperd.org/m_only/naspe/cslpe.pdf
Martinek, T., Schilling, T., & Johnson, D. (2001). Transferring personal and social responsibility of underserved youth to the classroom. The Urban Review, 33(1), pp.29-45. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010332812171
Menchaca, V. & Ruiz-Escalante, J. (1995). Instructional strategies for migrant students. Available on line at www.ed.gov./databases/ERIC_Digests/ed435147. html
Mendenhall, M.E., Stahl, G.K., Ehnert, I., Oddou, G., Osland, J.S., & Kulhmann, T.M. (2004). Evaluation studies of cross-cultural training programs. In D. Landis, J.M. Bennett & M.J. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (3rd ed.) (pp. 129-143). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ministry of Education (2008). From Sports to Everyday Life – all Different, all Equal. Implement Programs that Promote Equality in Society – KALLIPATEIRA. EPEAEK II. Athens: Multimedia Publication. [Ιn Greek].
Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs. (2011a). From today to the new school with the student first. Available on line at www.minedu.gov.gr/apo-to-simera-sto-neo-sxoleio-me-prota-ton-mathiti.html [Ιn Greek].
Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs. (2011b). Program Studies for elementary school physical education. Available on line at http://digitalschool.minedu.gov.gr/info/newps.php [Ιn Greek].
Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2008). Teaching Physical Education. Available on line at www.spectrumofstyles.org
Murgala, J. (2002). Exploratory study of responsibility model practitioners. PhD diss., University of Illinois at Chicago.
NCCA (National Council for Curriculum and Assessment) (2005). Intercultural education in primary school. Available on line at www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/Publications/Intercultural.pdf
Nikolaou, G. (2000). Integration and Education of immigrant students in the elementary school. From 'homogeneity' to multiculturalism. Athens: Ellinika Grammata.
Nikopoulou, M. (2006). The role of physical education in intercultural education Enhancing children's personal and social responsibility [PhD diss.]. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Greece. [Ιn Greek].
Parthenis, Ch. (2010). Inclusion of repatriated Greek and foreign immigrant students in school education: a possible good practice for intercultural inclusion. Intercultural Education, 21(4), pp.395-403. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2010.506724
Perry, L.B., & Southwell, L. (2011). Developing intercultural understanding and skills: models and approaches. Intercultural Education, 22(6), pp.453-466. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2011.644948
Slavin, R. (1999). Improving intergroup relations: lessons learned from cooperative learning programs. J soc issues, 55(4), pp.647-663. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00140
Tjeerdsma, B.L. (1999). Physical Education as a social and emotional development laboratory. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 10(4), pp.12-16.
Triandafyllidou, A., Gropas, R., & Eliame, P. (2007). Greek Education Policy and the Challenge of Migration: An Intercultural View of Assimilation. Race Ethnicity and Education, 14(3), pp.300-419.
UNESCO (2004). Guidelines on intercultural education. Available on line at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001478/147878e.pdf
Wilkinson, S. (2003). Effect of Hellison's social development model on positive and negative sport behavior of youth basketball players. Res Q Exercise Sport, 74(1), pp.A-56(3).
Winkler, B. (2007). A Multicultural Society - A Challenge for us all. Proceedings, Brandon Lecture, Salzburg-Seminar, Austria.