Initial body composition and sex affects to the velocity of body weight loss: A PRONAF study
Keywords:Body weight, Body composition, Caloric restriction, Exercise intervention, Weight loss velocity
To evaluate the effect of the initial Body Mass Index (BMI) and sex on the velocity of the body weight loss.The methods used included 180 overweight and obese participants (18 – 50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI) >25 and <34.9 kg/m2). Training groups exercised three times per week, and participants from only diet group respected the recommendations about physical activity from American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% calorie restriction. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was employed to analyze the initial and final body composition by sex and initial BMI. The main finding of this study is that the BW loss is affected by the initial BMI and sex. Body weight loss is affected by the initial BMI and sex, being greater for the obese people than for the overweight one, showing differences between sexes only in the overweight condition.
Acharya, S.D., Elci, O.U., Sereika, S.M., Music, E., Styn, M.A., Turk, M.W., & Burke, L.E. (2009). Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Patient preference and adherence, 3, pp.151.
Andersson, B., Xu, X.F., Rebuffe-Scrive, M., Terning, K., Krotkiewski, & M., Bjorntorp, P. (1991). The effects of exercise, training on body composition and metabolism in men and women. Int J Obes., 1(15), pp.75-81.
Arner, P. (1995). Differences in lipolysis between human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. Annals of medicine, 27(4), pp.435-438. https://doi.org/10.3109/07853899709002451
Arner, P. (1999). Catecholamine-induced lipolysis in obesity. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 23, pp.10-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0800789
Boutcher, S.H., & Dunn, S.L. (2009). Factors that may impede the weight loss response to exercise‐based interventions. Obesity Reviews, 10(6), pp.671-680. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00621.x
Björntorp, P. (1999). Neuroendocrine perturbations as a cause of insulin resistance. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, 15(6), pp.427-441. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-7560(199911/12)15:6<427::AID-DMRR68>3.0.CO;2-C
Brochu, M., Malita, M.F., Messier, V., Doucet, E., Strychar, I., Lavoie, J.M., Prud'homme, D., & Rabasa-Lhoret, R. (2009). Resistance training does not contribute to improving the metabolic profile after a 6-month weight loss program in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab., 94(9), pp.3226-33. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-2706
Crncevc-Orlic, Z., Jovanovic, Z., Stimac, D., Zaputovic, L., Persic, V., & Ruzic, A. (2008). Efficacy of healthy weight loss program in obesity treatment: Croatian experience. Coll Antropol., 32(1), pp.79-84.
Del Corral, P., Chandler-Laney, P.C., Casazza, K., Gower, B.A., & Hunter, G.R. (2009). Effect of dietary adherence with or without exercise on weight loss: a mechanistic approach to a global problem. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 94(5), pp.1602-1607. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-1057
Demura, S., & Sato, S. (2008). Nonlinear relationships between visceral fat area and percent regional fat mass in the trunk and the lower limbs in Japanese adults. European journal of clinical nutrition, 62(12), pp.1395-1404. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602887
Després, J.P., Tremblay, A., Nadeau, A., & Bouchard, C. (1987). Physical training and changes in regional adipose tissue distribution. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 222(S723), pp.205-212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0954-6820.1987.tb05945.x
Donnelly, J.E., Blair, S.N., Jakicic, J.M., Manore, M.M., Rankin, J.W., & Smith, B.K. (2009). Appropriate Physical Activity Intervention Strategies for Weight Loss and Prevention of Weight Regain for Adults (vol 41, pg 459, 2009). MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 41(7), pp.1532-1532. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ae46a1
Donnelly, J.E., Hill, J.O., Jacobsen, D.J., Potteiger, J., Sullivan, D.K., Johnson, S.L., & Sharp, T. (2003). Effects of a 16-month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: the Midwest Exercise Trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(11), pp.1343-1350. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.11.1343
Forbes, G.B. (1987). Lean Body Mass‐Body Fat Interrelationships in Humans. Nutrition reviews, 45(10), pp.225-231. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.1987.tb02684.x
Forbes, G.B. (2000). Body fat content influences the body composition response to nutrition and exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci., 904, pp.359-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06482.x
Ghroubi, S., Elleuch, H., Chikh, T., Kaffel, N., Abid, M., & Elleuch, M.H. (2009). Physical training combined with dietary measures in the treatment of adult obesity. A comparison of two protocols. Ann Phys Rehabil Med., 52(5), pp.394-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rehab.2008.12.017
Goodwin, P., Esplen, M.J., Butler, K., Winocur, J., Pritchard, K., Brazel, S., Gao, J., Miller, A. (1998). Multidisciplinary weight management in locoregional breast cancer: results of a phase II study. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 48(1), pp.53-64. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005942017626
Hagan, R.D., Upton, S.J., Wong, L.E.S., & Whittam, J. (1986). The effects of aerobic conditioning and/or caloric restriction in overweight men and women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 18(1), pp.87-94. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198602000-00015
Hall, K. (2007). Body Fat and Fat-Free Mass Interrelationships. Br J Nutr., 97(6), pp.1059-63. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507691946
Hall, K.D. (2010). Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 298(3), pp.E449-E466. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00559.2009
Hall, K.D., & Jordan, P.N. (2008). Modeling weight-loss maintenance to help prevent body weight regain. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 88(6), pp.1495-1503. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26333
Hall, K.D., Sacks, G., Chandramohan, D., Chow, C.C., Wang, Y.C., Gortmaker, S.L., & Swinburn, B.A. (2011). Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. The Lancet, 378(9793), pp.826-837. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60812-X
Hansen, D., Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Finer, N., Kopelman, P., Hilsted, J., Rössner, S., Saris, W., Van, Gaal, L., James, W., Goulder, M., & STORM Study Group. (2001). Predictors of weight loss and maintenance during 2 years of treatment by sibutramine in obesity. Results from the European multi-centre STORM trial. Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord., 25(4), pp.496-501. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801481
Hill, J.O., Wyatt, H.R., Reed, G.W., & Peters, J.C. (2003). Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here? Science, 299(5608), pp.853-5. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1079857
Hunter, G.R., Byrne, N.M., Sirikul, B., Fernández, J.R., Zuckerman, P.A., Darnell, B.E., & Gower, B.A. (2008). Resistance Training Conserves Fat‐free Mass and Resting Energy Expenditure Following Weight Loss. Obesity, 16(5), pp.1045-1051. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.38
Hunter, G.R., Wetzstein, C.J., Fields, D.A., Brown, A., & Bamman, M.M. (2000). Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(3), pp.977-984. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.3.977
Jakicic, J.M., Marcus, B.H., Lang, W., & Janney, C. (2008). Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Arch Intern Med., 168(14), pp.1550-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.168.14.1550
James, P.T., Leach, R., Kalamara, E., & Shayeghi, M. (2001). The worldwide obesity epidemic. Obes Res., 9(4 Suppl), pp.228S-33S. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2001.123
Kopelman, P., Jebb, S.A., & Butland, B. (2007). Executive summary: Foresight 'Tackling Obesities: Future Choices' project. Obes Rev., 8(1 Suppl), pp.6-9.
Leibel, R.L., Rosenbaum, M., & Hirsch, J. (1995). Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 332(10), pp.621-628. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199503093321001
Lönnqvist, F., Thörne, A., Large, V., & Arner, P. (1997). Sex differences in visceral fat lipolysis and metabolic complications of obesity. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 17(7), pp.1472-1480. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.17.7.1472
Mauriege, P., Després, J.P., Prud'Homme, D., Pouliot, M.C., Marcotte, M., Tremblay, A., & Bouchard, C. (1991). Regional variation in adipose tissue lipolysis in lean and obese men. Journal of lipid research, 32(10), pp.1625-1633.
Mauriege, P., Imbeault, P., Langin, D., Lacaille, M., Almeras, N., Tremblay, A., & Despres, J.P. (1999). Regional and gender variations in adipose tissue lipolysis in response to weight loss. Journal of lipid research, 40(9), pp.1559-1571.
McMurray, R.G., & Hackney, A.C. (2005). Interactions of metabolic hormones, adipose tissue and exercise. Sports medicine, 35(5), pp.393-412. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535050-00003
Murphy, S.L. (2009). Review of physical activity measurement using accelerometers in older adults: considerations for research design and conduct. Preventive medicine, 48(2), pp.108-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.12.001
Panel, N. O. E. I. E. (1998). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults.
Östman, J., Efendić, S., & Arner, P. (1969). Catecholamines and metabolism of human adipose tissue. Acta medica Scandinavica, 186(1‐6), pp.241-246. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0954-6820.1969.tb01472.x
Sartorio, A., Maffiuletti, N.A., Agosti, F., & Lafortuna, C.L. (2005). Gender-related changes in body composition, muscle strength and power output after a short-term multidisciplinary weight loss intervention in morbid obesity. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 28(8), pp.494-501. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03347236
Sato, S., & Demura, S. (2009). Regional subcutaneous fat characteristics stratified by sex, age, and obesity, and their relationships with total and visceral fat in a Japanese population. Journal of physiological anthropology, 28(5), pp.231-238. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.28.231
Shimokata, H., Tobin, J.D., Muller, D.C., Elahi, D., Coon, P.J., & Andres, R. (1989). Studies in the distribution of body fat: I. Effects of age, sex, and obesity. Journal of gerontology, 44(2), pp.M66-M73. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03420080089037
Stiegler, P., & Cunliffe, A. (2006). The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss. Sports Medicine, 36(3), pp.239-62. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636030-00005
Ravussin, E., Lillioja, S., Anderson, T.E., Christin, L., & Bogardus, C. (1986). Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 78(6), pp.1568. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI112749
Rebuffe-Scrive, M., Andersson, B., Olbe, L., & Björntorp, P. (1989). Metabolism of adipose tissue in intraabdominal depots of nonobese men and women. Metabolism, 38(5), pp.453-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(89)90198-4
Rebuffe-Scrive, M., Anderson, B., Olbe, L., & Björntorp, P. (1990). Metabolism of adipose tissue in intraabdominal depots in severely obese men and women. Metabolism, 39(10), pp.1021-1025. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(90)90160-E
Redman, L.M., Heilbronn, L.K., Martin, C.K., Alfonso, A., Smith, S.R., Ravussin, E. (2007). Effect of Calorie Restriction with or without Exercise on Body Composition and Fat Distribution. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92(3), pp.865-72. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-2184
Redman, L.M., Heilbronn, L.K., Martin, C.K., De Jonge, L., Williamson, D.A., Delany, J.P., & Pennington CALERIE Team. (2009). Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss. PLoS One, 4(2), pp.e4377. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377
Rojo-Tirado, M.A., Benito, P.J., Atienza, D., Rincon, E., & Calderon, F.J. (2013). Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab., 38(9), pp.967-76. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2012-0441
Rosenbaum, M., Ravussin, E., Matthews, D. E., Gilker, C., Ferraro, R., Heymsfield, S. B., & Leibel, R.L. (1996). A comparative study of different means of assessing long-term energy expenditure in humans. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 270(3), pp.R496-R504. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1996.270.3.R496
Rosenbaum, M., Vandenborne, K., Goldsmith, R., Simoneau, J.A., Heymsfield, S., Joanisse, D.R., & Leibel, R.L. (2003). Effects of experimental weight perturbation on skeletal muscle work efficiency in human subjects. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 285(1), pp.R183-R192. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00474.2002
Ross, R. (1997). Effects of diet-and exercise-induced weight loss on visceral adipose tissue in men and women. Sports Medicine, 24(1), pp.55-64. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199724010-00005
Tai, E.S., Lau, T.N., Ho, S.C., Fok, A.C., & Tan, C.E. (2000). Body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in normal weight women. Associations with insulin resistance, lipids and plasma leptin. International journal of obesity, 24(6), pp.751-757. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801220
Varaday, K. (2011). Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction_which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss. Obesity reviews, 12(7), pp.e593-e601. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00873.x
Volek, J., Sharman, M., Gomez, A., Judelson, D.A., Rubin, M.R., Watson, G., & Kraemer, W.J. (2004). Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutr Metab (Lond), 1(1), pp.13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-1-13
Wahrenberg, H., Lönnqvist, F., & Arner, P. (1989). Mechanisms underlying regional differences in lipolysis in human adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 84(2), pp.458. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI114187
Zapico, A.G., Benito, P.J., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Peinado, A.B., Morencos, E., Romero, B., Rojo-Tirado, M.A., Cupeiro, R., Szendrei, B., Butragueño, J., Bermejo, M., Alvarez-Sánchez, M., García-Fuentes, M., Gómez-Candela, C., Bermejo, L.M., Fernandez-Fernandez, C., & Calderón, F.J. (2012). Nutrition and physical activity programs for obesity treatment (PRONAF study). methodological approach of the project. BMC Public Health, 12, pp.1100. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-1100
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.