Throwing velocity in water polo elite competition: Analysis of associated variables


  • Laura García-Cervantes Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain
  • Encarnación Ruiz-Lara Catholic University San Antonio Murcia, Spain
  • Francisco Manuel Argudo Iturriaga Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain
  • Pablo José Borges-Hernández Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain



Training, Tactical analysis, Throw, Match, Sports performance


Throwing velocity is a relevant variable in water polo performance. Few studies have investigated the throw’s speed during an official competition or real game situation in high level competition. All throws performed in 27th European Championship in 2006 (Belgrade, Serbia) and 12th World Championships in 2007 (Melbourne, Australia) were analyzed in the present study. The total sample was composed of 5,691 throws (2,474 in female category). The study was developed with an observational design. A digital video camera, a radar and Polo Análisis Directo v1.0 software were used to record data. The reliability between the observers was verified using the kappa agreement index, ensuring that in all cases this value was greater than .85. The average maximum speed of throws in female water polo was 13.88 m/s (±2.44 m/s) and 16.94 m/s (±3.38 m/s) in male. The variables distance and game situation showed a combined ability to predict 19% of speed differences in female water polo throws and 33% in male.


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How to Cite

García-Cervantes, L., Ruiz-Lara, E., Argudo Iturriaga, F. M., & Borges-Hernández, P. J. (2017). Throwing velocity in water polo elite competition: Analysis of associated variables. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 1144–1152.



Performance Analysis of Sport

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