Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Concurrent training in prepubertal children: An update

Ana R. Alves, Carlos Marta, Henrique P. Neiva, Mikel Izquierdo, Mario C. Marques



This paper affords an update review over the state of art regarding the importance of physical fitness and the significance of different combination approaches between resistance and aerobic training, as well as conditioning methods exercise alone on physical fitness improvements, specifically explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in prepubertal children. The main research conclusions can be summarized as: i) Resistance training can be reliable to improve muscle strength in prepubertal children; ii) A proper and quantifiable exercise frequency and intensity in aerobic training remains unclear; iii) No differences have been found between prepubertal girls and boys on strength and aerobic capacity improvements after intra-session concurrent training , resistance or aerobic training alone; iv) In adults, concurrent resistance and aerobic training seems to be more effective on improvements of aerobic capacity than aerobic training alone; v) Aerobic  training biomechanically specific to the concurrent resistance training may minimize adaptation interference when concurrently training; vi) In adolescents, concurrent resistance and aerobic training is equally effective to improve explosive strength compared to resistance training alone, and more efficient in aerobic capacity than resistance  training alone; vii) Optimum training sequence was determined by the individual purposes of the training program; viii) Performing aerobic prior to resistance training produces endurance gains, while performing resistance prior to aerobic training appears to be more adequate to obtain strength improvements; ix) In adults, performing concurrent training in different sessions seems to be more effective to improve muscular strength than intra-session concurrent training. These results can be helpful for coaches, teachers and researchers to optimize explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness training in sports club and school-based programs, as well as a reliable source for further researches.


Prepubescent; Physical fitness; Sequence; Resistance; Aerobic


Abernethy, L., & Bleakley, C. (2007). Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine ,41(10), 627-638.

Alves, J.V., Saavedra, F., Simão, R., Novaes, J., Rhea, M.R., Green, D., & Reis, V.M. (2012). Does aerobic and strength exercise sequence in the same session affect the oxygen uptake during and post-exercise? Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(7), 1872-1878.

Andersen, L.B., & Haraldsdóttir, J. (1994). Changes in CHD risk factors with age: a comparison of Danish adolescents and adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(8), 967-72.

Arazi, H., Faraji, H., Moghadam, M.G., & Samadi, A. (2011). Effects of concurrent exercise protocols on strength, aerobic power, flexibility and body composition. Kinesiology, 43(2), 155-162.

Armstrong, N., & Welsman, J. (1990). Young People and Physical Activity. Oxford: University Press.

Armstrong, N. & Welsman, J. (2002). Young people and physical activity. Oxford: University Press.

Baquet, G., Berthoin, S., Dupont, G., Blondel, N., Fabre, C., van Praagh, E. (2002). Effects of high intensity intermittent training on peak VO (2) in prepubertal children. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(6), 439-44.

Baquet, G., van Praagh, E., & Berthoin, S. (2003). Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people. Sports Medicine, 33(15): 1127-1143.

Benson, A.C., Torode, M.E., & Singh, M.A.F. (2007). A rationale and method for high-intensity progressive resistance training with children and adolescents. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 28(4), 442–450.

Blair, S.N., Kohl, H.W., Paffenbarger, R.S., Clark, D.G., Cooper, K.H.; Gibbons, L.W. (1989). Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA, 262(17), 2395–2401.

Cadore, E.L., Pinto, R.S., Lhullier, F.L., Correa, C.S., Alberton, C.L., Pinto, S.S., Almeida, A.P., Tartaruga, M.P., Silva, E.M., & Kruel., L.F. (2010). Physiological effects of concurrent training in elderly men. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(10), 689-697.

Cadore E.L., Pinto, R.S., Pinto, S.S., Alberton, C.L., Correa, C.S., Tartaruga, M.P., Silva, E.M., Almeida, A.P., Trindade, G.T., & Kruel, L.F. (2011). Effects of strength, endurance, and concurrent training on aerobic power and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(3), 758-766.

Cadore, E.L., Izquierdo, M., Alberton, C.L., Pinto, R.S., Conceição, M., Cunha, G., Radaelli, R., Bottaro, M, Trindade, G.T, & Kruel, L.F. (2012). Strength prior to endurance intra-session exercise sequence optimizes neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains in elderly men. Experimental Gerontology, 47(2),164–169.

Cadore, E.L., Pinto, R.S., Bottaro, M., & Izquierdo, M. (2014). Strength and endurance training prescription in healthy and frail elderly. Aging and Disease, 5(3), 183–195.

Carazo-Vargas, P., & Moncada-Jiménez, J. (2015). A meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training on the VO2max in children and adolescents. Retos, 27, 184-187.

Cepero, M., López, R., Suárez-Llorca, C., Andreu-Cabrera, E., & Rojas, F.J. (2011). Fitness test profiles in children aged 8-12 years old in Granada (Spain). Journal of Human & Exercise, 6 (1), 135-145.

Chtara, M., Chamari, K., Chaouachi, M., Chaouachi, A., Koubaa, D., Feki, Y., Millet, G., & Amri, M. (2005). Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(8), 555-560.

Chtara, M., Chaouachi, A., Levin, G.T., Chaouachi, M., Chamari, K., Amri, M., & Laursen, P.B. (2008). Effect of concurrent endurance and circuit resistance training sequence on muscular strength and power development. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22 (4), 1037-1045.

Collins, M.A., & Snow, T.K. (1993) Are adaptations to combined endurance and strength training affected by the sequence of training? Journal of Sports Sciences, 11(6), 485-491.

Dahab, K.S., & McCambridge, T.M. (2009). Strength training in children and adolescents: Raising the bar for young athletes? Sports Health, 1(3), 223-226.

Davis, W.J., Wood, D.T., Andrews, R.G., Elkind, L.M., & Davis, W.B. (2008a). Concurrent training enhances athletes' cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory measures. Journal of Strength &Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1503–1514.

Davis, W.J., Wood, D.T., Andrews, R.G., Elkind, L.M., & Davis, W.B. (2008b) Concurrent training enhances athletes' strength, muscle endurance, and other measures. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1487–1502.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Westcott, W.L., Micheli, L.J., Outerbridge, A.R., Long, C.J., LaRosa-Loud, R., & Zaichkowsky, L. D. (1996). The effects of strength training and detraining on children. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 10(2), 109-14.<0109:TEOSTA>2.3.CO;2

Faigenbaum, A.D., Milliken, L.A., & Westcott, W.L. (2003). Maximal strength testing in children. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(1), 162–166.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Milliken, L.A., Cloutier, G., & Westcott, W.L. (2004). Perceived exertion during resistance exercise by children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 98(2), 627–637.

Faigenbaum, A.D., & Westcott, W.L. (2009a). Youth Strength Training: Programs for health, fitness and sport. (2nd ed). USA: Human Kinetics.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Kraemer, W.J., Blimkie, C.J., Jeffreys, I., Micheli, L.J., Nitka, M., & Rowland, T.W. (2009b). Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(5 Suppl), S60–S79.

Falk, B., & Tenenbaum, G. (1996). The effectiveness of resistance training in children. A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 22(3), 176-186.

Fyfe, J.J., Bishop, D.J., & Stepto, N.K. (2014). Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: Molecular bases and the role of individual training variables. Sports Medicine, 44 (6), 743-762.

Garber, C.E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M.R., Franklin, B.A., Lamonte, M.J., Lee, I.M., Nieman, D.C., & Swain, D.P. (2011). American College of Sport Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(7), 1334-1359.

García-Pallarés, J., Sánchez-Medina, L., Pérez, C. E., Izquierdo-Gabarren, M. & Izquierdo, M. (2010). Physiological effects of tapering and detraining in world-class kayakers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 (6), 1209-1214.

García-Pallarés, J., & Izquierdo, M. (2011). Strategies to optimize concurrent training of strength and aerobic fitness for rowing and canoeing. Sports Medicine, 41(4), 329–343.

Gergley, J.C. (2009). Comparison of two lower-body modes of endurance training on lower- body strength development while concurrently training. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23 (3), 979-987.

Greenleaf, C.A., Petrie, T.A., & Martin, S.B. (2010). Psychosocial variables associated with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school students. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 81(3 Suppl), S65-S74.

Häkkinen, K., Alen, M., Kraemer, W.J., Gorostiaga, E., Izquierdo, M., Rusko, H., MIkkola, J., Hakkinen, A., Valkeinen, H., Kaarakeinen, E., Romu, S., Erola, V., Ahtiainen, K., & Paavolainen, L. (2003). Neuromuscular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 89 (1), 42-52.

Hass, C.J., Feigenbaum, M.S., & Franklin, B.A. (2001). Prescription of resistance training for healthy populations. Sports Medicine, 31(14), 953-964.

Hickson, R.C. (1980). Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance. European Journal of Applied Physiology Occupational Physiology, 45(2-3), 255-263.

Holviala, J., Häkkinen, A., Karavirta, L., Nyman, K., Izquierdo, M., Gorostiaga, E.M., Avela, J., Korhonen, J., Knuutila, V.P., Kraemer, W.J., & Häkkinen, K. (2010). Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(6), 1584–1595.

Izquierdo, M., Häkkinen, K., Ibañez, J., Anton, A., Garrues, M., Ruesta, M., & Gorostiaga, E.M. (2003). Effects of strength training on submaximal and maximal endurance performance capacity in middle-aged and older men. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17 (1), 129-139.

Izquierdo, M., Häkkinen, K., Ibañez, J., Kraemer, W.J., & Gorostiaga, E.M. (2005). Effects of combined resistance and cardiovascular training on strength, power, muscle cross-sectional area, and endurance markers in middle-aged men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(1-2), 70–75.

Izquierdo-Gabarren, M., Expósito, R.G.T., García-Pallarés, J., Sánchez-Medina, L., De Villarreal, E.S., & Izquierdo, M. (2010). Concurrent endurance and strength training not to failure optimizes performance gains. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(6), 1191–1199.

Kang, J., Rashti, S.L., Tranchina, C.P., Ratamess, N.A., Faigenbaum, A.D. & Hoffman, J.R. (2009). Effect of preceding resistance exercise on metabolism during subsequent aerobic session. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(1), 43-50.

Kang, Y., & Ratamess, N. (2014). Which Comes First? Resistance Before Aerobic Exercise or Vice Versa? American College of Sports Medicine, 18(1), 9-14.

Katch, V.L. (1983). Physical conditioning of children. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 3(4), 241–246.

Kelley, D.E., He, J., Menshikova, E.V., & Ritov, V.B. (2002). Dysfunction of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 51(10), 2944–2950.

Kobayashi, K., Kitamura, K., Miura, M., Sodeyama, H., Murase, Y., Miyashita, M., & Matsui, H. (1978). Aerobic power as related to body growth and training in Japanese boys: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 44(5), 666-672.

Kraemer, W.J., Patton, J.F., Gordon, S.E., Harman, E.A., Deschenes, M.R., Reynolds, K., Newton, R.U., Triplett, N.T, & Dziados, J. E. (1995). Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(3), 976–989.

Küüsmaa, M. (2013). Effects of 24 weeks of single session combined strength and endurance training on body compositition and fitness: Examination of order effect. (Unpublished master's thesis, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Leveritt M., Abernethy, P.J., Barry, B.K., & Logan, P.A. (1999). Concurrent strength and endurance training. A review. Sports Medicine, 28(6), 413–427.

Malina, R.M., Beunen, G.P., Classens, A.L., Lefevre, J., Eynde, B.V., Renson, R., Vanreusel, B., & Simons, J. (1995). Fatness and physical fitness of girls 7 to 17 years. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 3(3), 221-231.

Malina, R.M. (2006). Weight training in youth-growth, maturation and safety: An evidenced-based review. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 16(6), 478–487.

Mandigout, S., Lecoq, A.M., Courteix, D., Guenon, P., & Obert, P. (2001). Effect of gender in response to an aerobic training programme in prepubertal children. Acta Paediatrica, 90 (1): 9-15.

Marta, C.C., Marinho, D.A., Barbosa, T.M., Izquierdo, M., & Marques, M.C. (2013). Effects of concurrent training on explosive strength and VO2max in prepubescent children. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34 (10), 888-896.

Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., & Sánchez-López, M. (2008). Relationship Between Physical Activity and Physical Fitness in Children and Adolescents. Revista Española de Cardiología, 61(2), 108-111.

Massicotte, D.R. & Macnab, R.B. (1974). Cardiorespiratory adaptations to training at specified intensities in children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 6(4), 242-246.

Matos, N., & Winsley, R.J. (2007). Trainability of young athletes and overtraining. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 6(3), 353-367.

Matton, L., Duvigneaud, N., Wijndaele, K., Philippaerts, R., Duquet, W., Beunen, G., Claessens, A.L., Thomis, M., & Lefevre, J. (2007). Secular trends in anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness, physical activity and biological maturation in Flemish adolescents between 1969 and 2005. American Journal of Human Biology, 19(3), 345-357.

McCarthy, J.P., Agre, J.C., Graf, B.K., Pozniak, M.A., & Vailas, A.C. (1995). Compatibility of adaptive responses with combining strength and endurance training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 27(3), 429–436.

McCarthy, J.P., Pozniak, M.A. & Agre, J.C. (2002). Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent strength and endurance training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34 (3), 511-519.

Micheli, L.J., Glassman, R., & Klein, M. (2000). The prevention of sports injuries in children. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 19(4),821-834.

Mirwald, R.L., Bailey, D.A., Cameron, N., & Rasmussen, R.L. (1981). Longitudinal comparison of aerobic power in active and inactive boys aged 7.0 to 17.0 years. Annals of Human Biology, 8(5), 405-414.

Moreno, J.A., Cervelló, E., & Moreno, R. (2007). El autoconcepto físico como predictor de la intención de ser físicamente activo. Psicología y Salud,17(2), 261–267.

Ortega, F.B., Tresaco, B., Ruiz, J.R., Moreno, L.A., Martin-Matillas, M., Mesa, J.L., Warnberg, J., Bueno, M., Tercedor, P., Gutiérrez, A., & Castillo, M.J. (2007). Cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary activities are associated with adiposity in adolescents. Obesity, 15(6), 1589–1599.

Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., & Sjöström, M. (2008a). Los adolescentes físicamente activos presentan más probabilidad de una capacidad cardiovascluar saludable independientemente del grado de adiposidad. The European Youth Heart Study. Revista Española de Cardiología, 61(2),123-129.

Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., & Sjöström, M. (2008b). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: A powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity, 32 (1), 1-11.

Ortega, F.B., Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: Cohort study of one million participants. British Medical Journal, 20, 345, e7279.

Ozmun, J.C., Mikesky, A.E., & Surburg, P.R. (1994). Neuromuscular adaptations following prepubescent strength training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(4), 510-514.

Pate, R.R., Ward, D.S. (1990). Endurance exercise trainability in children and youth. Chicago: Year Book Publishers, 37–55.

Payne, V.G., Morrow, J.R., Johnson, L., & Dalton, S.N. (1997). Resistance training in children and youth: A meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 68(1), 80-88.

Pfeiffer, K. A., Lobelo, F., Ward, D. S., & Pate, R. R. (2008). Endurance trainability of children and youth: The Young Athlete. Oxford: Blackwell, 84-95.

Pijnappels, M., van der Burg, P.J., Reeves, N.D., & van Dieën, J.H. (2008). Identification of elderly fallers by muscle strength measures. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 102(5), 585–592.

Pitukcheewanont, P., Punyasavatsut, N., & Feuille, M. (2010). Physical activity and bone health in children and adolescents. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, 7(3), 275–282.

Rahnama, N., Gaeini, A.A., & Hamedinia, M.R. (2007). Oxidative stress responses in physical education students during 8 weeks aerobic training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 47, 119–123.

Ramsay, J.A., Blimkie, C.J., Smith, K., Garner, S., MacDougall, J.D, & Sale, D.G. (1990). Strength training effects in prepubescent boys. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 22(5), 605–614.

Roetert, E.P. (2004). The lack of childhood activity in the United States. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 26(2), 22–23.

Ruiz, J.R., Castro- Piñero, J., Artero, E.G., Ortega, F.B., Sjöström, M., Suni, J., & Castillo, M. J. (2009). Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(12), 909-923.

Sadres, E., Eliakim, A., Constantini, N., Lidor, R., & Falk, B. (2001). The effect of long-term resistance training on anthropometric measures, muscle strength, and self-concept in pre-pubertal boys. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13(4), 357–372.

Sale, D.G., McDougall, J.D., Jacobs, I., & Garner, S. (1990). Interaction between concurrent strength and endurance training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 68(1), 260-270.

Santos, A., Marinho, D.A., Costa, A.M., Izquierdo, M., & Marques, M.C. (2011). Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training/detraining program follow a specific detraining cycle on strength and aerobic fitness in school girls. Journal of Human Kinetics, 29A, 93-103.

Santos, A., Marinho, D.A., Costa, A.M., Izquierdo, M., & Marques, M.C. (2012). The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training follow a detraining period in elementary school students. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26 (6), 1708–1716.

Santos, R., Mota, J., Santos, D.A., Silva, A.M., Baptista, F., & Sardinha, L.B. (2014). Physical fitness percentiles for Portuguese children and adolescents aged 10-18 years. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(16), 1510-1518.

Shaw, B.S., Shaw, I., & Brown, G.A. (2009). Comparison of resistance and concurrent resistance and endurance training regimes in the development of strength. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(9), 2507–2514.

Shephard, R.J. (1992). Effectiveness of training programmes for prepubescent children. Sports Medicine, 13 (3), 194-213.

Sillanpää, E., Häkkinen, A., Nyman, K., Mattila, M., Cheng, S., Karavirta, L., Laaksonen, D.E., Huuhka, N., Kraemer, W.J., & Häkkinen, K. (2008). Body composition and fitness during strength and/or endurance training in older men. Medicine & Science in Sports Exercise, 40 (5), 950-958.

Silva, R.F., Cadore, E.L., Kothe, G., Guedes, M., Alberton, C.L., Pinto, S.S., Trindade, G., & Kruel, L.F. (2012). Concurrent training with different aerobic exercises. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(8), 627–634.

South African Sports Medicine Association. (2008). Resistance training in children and adolescents. South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA) Web site. Accessed October 5, 2016. Available at:

Steele, R.M., Brage, S., Corder, K., Wareham, N.J., & Ekelund, U. (2008). Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome in youth. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(1), 342–351.

Steinberger, J. (2003). Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome in children. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 14(6): 555–559.

Sung, R., Yu, C., Chang, S., Mo, S., Woo, K., & Lam, C. (2002). Effects of dietary intervention and strength training on blood lipid level in obese children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 86(6), 407-410.

Szymanski, D.J., Szymanski, J.M., Bradford, T.J., Schade, R.L., & Pascoe, D.D. (2007). Effect of twelve weeks of medicine ball training on high school baseball players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(3), 894-901.

Takeshima, N., Rogers, N.L., Rogers, M.E., Islam, M.M., Koizumi, D., & Lee, S. (2007). Functional fitness gain varies in older adults depending on exercise mode. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(11), 2036-2043.

Tambalis, K.D., Panagiotakos, D.B., Arnaoutis, G., & Sidossis, L.S. (2013). Endurance, explosive power and muscle strength in relation to body mass index and physical fitness in Greek children aged 7-10 years. Pediatric Exercise Science, 25(3), 394–406.

Tomkinson, G.R., & Olds, T.S. (2007). Secular changes in pediatric aerobic fitness test performance: The global picture. Medicine and Sport Science, 50, 46-66.

Trost, S.G., Pate, R.R., Sallis, J.F., Freedson, P.S., Taylor, W.C., Dowda, M., & Sirard, J. (2002). Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(2), 350–355.

Tsolakis, C.K., Vagenas, G.K., & Dessypris, A.G. (2004). Strength adaptations and hormonal responses to resistance training and detraining in preadolescent males. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(3), 625-629.

Vaughn, J.M., & Micheli, L. (2008). Strength training recommendations for the young athlete. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2), 235–245.

Wijndaele, K., Duvigneaud, N., Matton, L., Duquet, W., Thomis, M., Beunen, G., Lefevre, J., & Philipphaerts, R.M. (2007). Muscular strength, aerobic fitness, and metabolic syndrome risk in Flemish adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(2), 233–240.

Wilson, J.M., Marin, P.J., Rhea, M.R., Wilson, S.M., Loenneke, J.P., & Andersen, J.C. (2012). Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(8), 2293–2307.

Yu, C.C., Sung, R.Y., Hau, K.T., Lam, P.K., Nelson, E.A., & So, R.C. (2008). The effect of diet and strength training on obese children's physical self-concept. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48(1), 76-82.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.