The development of a reliable theory-based psychological instrument to measure cognitions relating to participation in university recreational sports
Background: It is important that theoretically informed questionnaires developed using guidelines outlined within the Theory of Planned Behaviour demonstrate reliability. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of direct and indirect items examining perceptions towards recreational sports participation by university students. Method: A convenience sample of 28 participants undertaking various degree programmes was used (age M = 18.89, SD = 0.62, female n = 18, male n = 10). Participants completed a theory-based questionnaire at time 1 and two weeks later at time 2. Internal consistency between direct items and correlations between indirect items was conducted. Results: Results showed all constructs measured through direct items had Cronbach’s alphas over 0.8 and all indirect items measuring beliefs were significantly correlated (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The findings demonstrate the reliability of a questionnaire to be used for a future study aimed at identifying specific belief-based intervention targets. The result of such work provides the foundations for interventions promoting participation in recreational university student sport, an expanding yet under-researched population of study.
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to action: A theory of planned behaviour. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Ed.), Action control: From cognitions to behaviours (pp. 11-39). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69746-3_2
Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality, and behaviour. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from http://www.people.umass.edu/aizen/pdf/tpb.measurement.pdf
Ajzen, I. (2011). Behavioural interventions: Design and evaluation guided by the theory of planned behaviour. In M. M. Mark, S. I. Donaldson, & B. Campbell (Eds.), Social psychology for program and policy evaluation (pp. 74–100). New York, NY: Guilford.
Armitage, C. J. (2005). Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the maintenance of physical activity? Health Psychology, 24(3), 235-245. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-618.104.22.168
Booth, A. R., Norman, P., Harris, P. R., & Goyder, E. (2015). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(9), 1229-1239. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105313510335
Chan, D. K. C., Hardcastle, S., Dimmock, J. A., Lentillon-Kaestner, V., Donovan, R. J., Burgin, M., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Modal salient belief and social cognitive variables of anti-doping behaviours in sport: Examining an extended model of the theory of planned behaviour. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 164-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.002
Chinapaw, M. J. M., Mokkink, L. B., van Poppel, M. N. M., van Mechelen, W., & Terwee, C. B. (2010). Physical activity questionnaires for youth: a systematic review of measurement properties. Sports Medicine, 40, 539-563. https://doi.org/10.2165/11530770-000000000-00000
Epton, T., Norman, P., Harris, P., Webb, T., Snowsill, F. A., & Sheeran, P. (2015). Development of theory-based health messages: three-phase programme of formative research. Health Promotion International, 30, 756-768. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dau005
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behaviour: The reasoned action approach. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Francis, J., Eccles, M. P., Johnston, M., Walker, A. E., Grimshaw, J. M., Foy, R., … Bonetti, D. (2004). Constructing questionnaires based on the theory of planned behaviour: A manual for health services researchers. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Centre for Health Services Research, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Gucciardi, D.F., & Jackson, B. (2015). Understanding sport continuation: An integration of the Theories of Planned Behaviour and Basic Psychological Needs. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 31-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.11.011
Hardeman, W., Johnston, M., Johnston, D., Bonetti, D., Wareham, N., & Kinmonth, A. L. (2002). Application of the theory of planned behaviour in behaviour change interventions: A systematic review. Psychology and Health, 17(2), 123-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870440290013644a
Huesman, R., Brown, A. K., Lee, G., Kellogg, J. P., & Radcliffe, P. M. (2009). Gym bags and mortarboards: Is use of campus recreation facilities related to student success? Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 46, 50-71. https://doi.org/10.2202/1949-6605.5005
Kampf, S., & Teske, E. (2013). Collegiate recreation participation and retention. Recreational Sports Journal, 37, 85-96. https://doi.org/10.1123/rsj.37.2.85
Kyndt, E., Berghmans, I., Dochy, F., & Bulckens, L. (2014). 'Time is not enough.' Workload in higher education: a student perspective. Higher Education Research & Development, 33(4), 684-698. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2013.863839
Mendez, R. D. R., Rodrigues, R. C. M., Cornélio, M. E., Gallani, M. C. B. J., & Godin, G. (2010). Development of an instrument to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity behaviour among coronary heart disease patients. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 44(3), 584-596. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0080-62342010000300006
Newham, J. J., Allan, C., Leahy-Warren, P., Carrick-Sen, D., & Alderdice, F. (2016). Intentions Toward Physical Activity and Resting Behavior in Pregnant Women: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior Framework in a Cross-Sectional Study. Birth, 43(1), 49-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/birt.12211
Padilha, K. M., Gallani, M. C., & Colombia, R. C. (2004). Development of an instrument to measure beliefs and attitudes from heart valve disease patients. Revista Latino-Americana De Enfermagem, 12(3), 453-9. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-11692004000300002
Prapavessis, H., Gaston, A., & DeJesus, S. (2015). The theory of planned behaviour as a model for understanding sedentary behaviour. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 19, 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.02.001
Rhodes, R. E., & Blanchard, C. M. (2006). Conceptual categories or operational constructs? Evaluating higher order theory of planned behaviour structures in the exercise domain. Behavioural Medicine, 31, 141-150. https://doi.org/10.3200/BMED.31.4.141-150
Sport England. (2012). Creating a Sporting Habit for Life. Sport England: England.
Taylor, N., Conner, M., & Lawton, R. (2012). The impact of theory on the effectiveness of worksite physical activity interventions: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Health Psychology Review, 6, 33–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2010.533441
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.