Endurance ratios of middle-distance race
The paper deals with the ergometric endurance criteria in field-and-track middle-distance race and systematizes the applied training means according to the direction (nature) of the physiological effect. The ergometric analysis of ‘velocity – time’ and ‘distance – time’ dependences, according to the data of the world race records, allows defining the role of the aerobic and anaerobic energy production at particular distances of the field-and-track race. The level of development of the sportsmen’s aerobic and anaerobic capacities affects the manifestation of special endurance in the middle-distance race. The experiment was conducted among field-and-track athletes of high qualification specializing in the middle (800 and 1500 m) distances. The main factor influencing the result in a race is the energy indicators. So, their measurement and estimate serve the main leverage of the training session. The use of predominantly anaerobic exercises during the specialized work-outs significantly improves the runners’ special endurance indicators.
Farfel, V. S. (1939). Systemic physiological characteristics of cyclic physical exercises. Theory and practice of physical culture, 3, 56.
Farfel, V. S. (1945). Studies in the physiology of limiting muscle work and endurance. Authors thesis…Doct. Biol. Science. Moscow.
Farfel, V. S. (1949). Physiological features of work of different power. Research on the physiology of endurance: Proceedings of the Central Scientific Research Institute, 7(3), 237-259.
Farfel, V. S. (1975). Physiological classification of postures and different types of muscle activity. Human physiology. Moscow: Fizkultura i sport.
Fox, E. L. (1973). Measurement of the maximal alactic (phosphagen) capacity in man. Med Sci Sports, 5, 66-71.
Henry, F. M. (1954). Time-velocity equations and oxygen requirements of "all-out" and "steady pace" running. Res Quat, 2, 164-177. https://doi.org/10.1080/10671188.1954.10624956
Henry, F. M. (1955). Prediction of world records in running sixty yards to twenty-six miles. Res Quat, 2, 147-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/10671188.1955.10612815
Hermansen, L., & Osnes, J. B. (1969). Blood and muscle pH after maximal exercise in man. J Appl Physiol, 26, 31-37. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.124
Hermansen, L., & Wachtlova M. (1971). Capillary density of skeletal muscle in well-trained and untrained men. J Appl Physiol, 30, 860-863. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1990
Hill, A. V. (1925). The physiological basis of athletic records. The Lancet, 2, 481-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(01)15546-7
Hill, A. V. (1927). Muscular movement in man: the factors governing speed and recovery from fatigue. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Hill, A. V. (1972). Mechanics of muscle contraction. Moscow: Mir.
Hollman, W. (1963). Hochst- und Dauer Leistungsfahigkeit des sportles. München: J. Bart.
Hottenrott, K., & Neuman, G. (2002). Das grosse Buch vom Laufen. Aachen: Meyer und Meyer.
Janssen, P. (2001). Lactate threshold training. Champaign: Human Kinetics Publishers.
Keul, J., Doll, E., & Keppler, D. (1969). Muskelsfoffwechsel. Stuttgart: Verl. G. Thieme.
Knechtle, B. (2002). Aktuelle Sportphysiologie: Leistung und Ernährung im Sport. Basel: Karger. https://doi.org/10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-00876-0
Lazareva, E. A. (2015). Bioenergetic criteria of working capacity of athletes specializing in various distances of track and field run. In III International Scientific and Practical Conference (pp. 179-181). Ulan-Ude: East-Siberian State University of Technology and Management.
Lazareva, E. A., Grigorieva, N. G., & Abrakhmanov, R. V. (2015). Classification of running exercises on bioenergetic criteria. In Materials of the IV International scientific conference "Education, sport, health in modern environmental conditions" (pp. 80-84). Rostov-on-Don: Southern Federal University.
Lazareva, E. A., Stepanova, O. A., Abdrakhmanov, R. V., & Orlova, L. N. (2013). The level of sports achievements in the analysis of run record curves. In Actual problems of physical culture and sports: a collection of scientific articles (pp. 230-232). Cheboksary: Chuvash State Pedagogical Institute.
Margaria, R. (1976). Biomechanics and energetics of muscular exercise. Oxford: Clareudon Press.
Margaria, R., Aghemo, P., & Rovelli E. (1966). Measurement of muscular power (anaerobic) in man. Eur J Appl Physiol, 21, 1662-1664. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.522
Newsholme, E., Leech, T., & Duester, G. (1994). Keep on running. The science of training and performance. Chichester: J. Wiley and Sons.
Rozhentsov, V. V., & Polevshchikov, M. M. (2006). Fatigue when practicing physical culture and sports: problems, research methods. Moscow: Sovski sport.
Saltin, B. (1973). Metabolic fundamentals in exercise. Med Sci, 5, 137-146. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-197323000-00010
Saltin, B., & Karlsson, J. (1971). Muscle glycogen utilization during work of different intensities. In Muscle metabolism during exercise. Proceedings of a Karolinska Institutet Symposium held in Stockholm, Sweden, September 6-9, 1970. New York: Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4609-8_25
Shephard, R. J. (1977). Endurance fitness. Toronto: Toronto Press.
Volkov, N. I. (1964). Stamina of the sprinter. Athletics, 3, 28-31.
Volkov, N. I. (1968). Energy metabolism and human capacity for work in conditions of intense muscular activity. Authors thesis…Doct. Biol. Science. Moscow.
Volkov, N. I. (1975). Biochemical control in sports: problems and prospects. Theory and practice of physical culture, 11, 28-37.
Volkov, N. I. (1986). Biochemistry: a textbook for institutes of physical culture. Moscow: Fizkul'tura i sport.
Volkov, N. I. (1989). Tests and criteria for assessing the endurance of athletes. Moscow: GCOLIFK.
Volkov, N. I., & Savelev, I. A. (2002). Oxygen request and the energy cost of a person's intense muscular activity. Human physiology, 4, 80-93.
Volkov, N. I., & Shirkovets, E. A. On energy performance criteria for athletes. Leningrad: Bioenergetics.
Volkov, N. I., Popov, O. I. Savelyev, I. A., & Samborskiy, A. G. (2003). Pulse criteria for the energy cost of exercise. Human physiology, 3, 99-103.
Volkov, N. I., Shirkovets, E. A., & Borilkevich, V. E. (1975). Assessment of aerobic and anaerobic capacity of treadmill running tests. Eur J Appl Physiol, 34, 121-130. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00999924
Wilber, R. L. (2004). Altitude training and athletic performance. Champaign: Human Kinetics Publishers.
License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/