Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

World records in running: The experience of ergometric analysis

Evgeniia O. Panova, Elvira A. Lazareva, Ivan M. Kuptsov, Natalia V. Valkina, Vladimir V. Vavilov

Abstract

Analysis of record achievements in athletics has almost a century of history. The leading method during the study was the ergometric measurement method. Ergometric analysis of the results was performed proceeding from the relationship between the length of the distance and the limit time to overcome it. Analysis of record curves at different running distances was performed on the basis of the technique proposed by N.I. Volkov. To analyse the growth of record achievements, we also applied the logarithmic transformation of exponential dependence. Ergometric analysis of record curves displayed that with each new exponential spike in the improvement of results, an increase in the endurance coefficient is noted. It was established that athletes who train to overcome long running distances have better ergometric indicators characterizing aerobic performance: they are characterized by a higher coefficient of "critical speed" and a less pronounced decrease in the curve of the dependence "speed – time". And middle-distance athletes were characterized by large values of power factor, which gives clear advantages upon performing intense muscular work. The data obtained by us in the analysis of record achievements in short distances and the forecast of records for these distances allowed to distinguish four stages throughout the history of record achievements in athletics, within each of which occurred a radical reorganization of the training methodology used.


Keywords

Athletics; Muscle activity; Energy-supplying processes; Achievement curve

References

Asmussen E. (1965). The biological basis of sport. Ergonomics, 8, 137-152. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140136508930785

Astrand P.-O. (1955). New records in human power. Nature, 176, 922-923. https://doi.org/10.1038/176922a0

Borilkevich V.E. (1989). Physical performance in extreme conditions of muscular activity: thesis of the candidate of biological sciences, Leningrad.

Brandon L., Boileau R. (1987). The contribution of selected variables to middle and long distance running performance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 7, 61-66.

Dill D.B. (1967). A longitudinal study of 16 champion runners. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 7, 4-27.

Farfel V.S. (1945). Research on the physiology of ultimate muscular work and endurance: thesis of the dissertation of the candidate of biological sciences, Moscow.

Helgerud J. (1992). VO2-maks, anaerobic threshold and running economics for male marathon runners; women. Sport Wyczynowy, 30(11), 73-81.

Henry F.M. (1955). Prediction of wold records in running sixty yards to twenty-six miles. Quaternary Research, 26, 2, 147-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/10671188.1955.10612815

Henry F.M. (1954). Time-velocity equations and oxygen requirements of "all-out" and "Steady pace" running. Quaternary Research, 2, 164-177. https://doi.org/10.1080/10671188.1954.10624956

Hill A.V. (1925). The physiological basis of athletes records. The Scientific Monthly, 21(4), 409.

Margaria R. (1963). Biochemistry of muscular contraction and recovery. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 3, 145.

Ovchinnikov V.F. (1975). An experimental study of ways to improve the training technique in middle-distance running: thesis of the dissertation of the candidate of pedagogical sciences, Moscow.

Robinson S., Edwards E.T., Dill D.B. (1937). New records in human power. Science. 85, 409. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.85.2208.409

Smirnov M.R. (1990). The relationship of the main parameters of the running load with energy metabolism. Theory and Practice of Physical Education, 7, 18-26.

Sonkin V.D. Tiunova O.V. (1989). Power Zones: A Look after 50 Years. Theory and Practice of Physical Education, 5, 56-58.

Volkov N.I. (1967). Biochemical fundamentals of athlete endurance. Theory and Practice of Physical Education, 4, 19-26.

Volkov N.I. (1968). Energy metabolism and human performance in conditions of intense muscular activity: thesis of the dissertation of the candidate of biological sciences, Moscow.

Volkov N.I. (1970). Future records. Athletics, 6, 6-7.

Volkov N.I. (1962). Some basics of running. Athletics, 1, 10-12.

Volkov N.I. (1964). Sprinter Stamina, Athletics, 3, 28-31.

Volkov N.I. (1974). The logic of sports training. Athletics, 10, 22-23.

Wolkow N.I. (1989). Bioenergetyczne podstamy i ocean wytrzymalošci. Sport Wyczynowy, 27(7-8), 7-18.

Yaruzhniy N.V. (1985). Dynamics of mechanical productivity and energy metabolism in young men 17-18 years old with short-term muscular work of maximum intensity: thesis of the candidate of biological sciences, Moscow.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2021.164.20





Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.