Values-based education: The development of a questionnaire

Eridiola Buzi, Juel Jarani, Mehmet Türegün, Angelo Macaro, Emanuele Isidori

Abstract

This study focuses on the development of an instrument that measures and evaluates the Attitudes of Children towards Values in Physical Education (ACHV-PE) class. This research is a collection of four phases. The first phase focused on content validity and item construction of the questionnaire. The second phase was a pilot-testing of the instrument to a group of students. Lastly, (n=449) students from seven International Schools located in Tirana, Albanian, and Rome, Italy were recruited for the third and the fourth phases. These two phases were based on Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, to assess and confirm the factor structure. From our data, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin value was 0.870, and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (p< 0.001). The CFA demonstrated a good model fit indices. From the results obtained in each phase, we established the content validity and reliability of the ACHV-PE questionnaire with 17 items.


Keywords

Values; Attitudes; Physical education; Children; Questionnaire

References

Butcher, R., & Schneider, A. (1998). Fair Play as Respect for the Game. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 25(1), 1–22.

Clifford, C., & Feezell, R. (2010). Sport and Character: Reclaiming the principles of sportsmanship. United States of America, Human Kinetics.

George, D., &Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.) Boston: Allyn & Baco. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351033909

Hassandra, M., Goudas, M., Hatzigeorgiadis, A. &Theodorakis, Y. (2002). Development of a questionnaire assessing fair play in elementary school physical education. Athlitiki Psychologia, 13, 105–126. https://doi.org/10.1037/e548052012-280

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02291575

Laker, A. (2001). Developing personal, social, and moral education through physical education : a practical guide for teachers. London, RoutledgeFalmer, and New York, Taylor & Francis e-Library. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203181850

Lee, M. J., Whitehead, J., Balchin, N. (2000). The Measurement of Values in Youth Sport: Development of the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 22. 307-326. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.22.4.307

Lee, M.J., Whitehead, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Hatzigeorgiadis, A. (2008). Relationships Among Values, Achievement Orientations, and Attitudes in Youth Sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 588–610. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.30.5.588

Lee, Martin J., & Cockman, M. (1995). Values in Children’s Sport: Spontaneously Expressed Values Among Young Athletes 1. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 337–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/101269029503000307

Lee, M. J., Whitehead, J., & Ntoumanis, N. (2007). Development of the Attitudes to Moral Decision-making in Youth Sport Questionnaire (AMDYSQ). Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 8 (3), 369-392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.002

Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.-T., & Grayson, D. (2005). Goodness of fit evaluation in structural equation models. Contemporary psychometrics. 275-340.

Naul, R. (2002). Fair Play as an Olympic Ideal and a Personal Behaviour Pattern in Sports Activities: Vision and Reality assessed by young European Students, 1–11.

Rokeach, M. (1967). The RokeachValues Survey. Sunnyvale, CA: Halgren Tests.

Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press.

Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E, A., & King, J. (2006) Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor analysis Results: A Review. The Journal of Educational Research, 99, 323-337. https://doi.org/10.3200/joer.99.6.323-338

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60281-6

Schwartz, S. H. (2006). Basic human values: Theory, measurement, and applications. Revue Française de Sociologie, 42, 249–288.

Telama, R., Naul, R., Nupponen, H., Rychtecky, A., &Vuolle, P. (2000). Physical Fitness, Sporting Lifestyles, and Olympic Ideals: Cross-Cultural Studies on Youth Sport in Europe. Schorndorf: Hofmann.,11.

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. (n.d.). Values Education through Sport Innovative education for development. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/physical-education-and-sport/values-education-through-sport/

Whitehead, J ., & Ntoumanis, N. (2013). Further use of AMDYSQ and the development of AMDYSQ-2. In Values in youth sport and Physical Education, pp 230–237.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.152.17





License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/