Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Values-based education: The development of a questionnaire

Eridiola Buzi, Juel Jarani, Mehmet Türegün, Angelo Macaro, Emanuele Isidori



This study focuses on the development of an instrument that measures and evaluates the Attitudes of Children towards Values in Physical Education (ACHV-PE) class. This research is a collection of four phases. The first phase focused on content validity and item construction of the questionnaire. The second phase was a pilot-testing of the instrument to a group of students. Lastly, (n = 449) students from seven International Schools located in Tirana, Albania, and Rome, Italy were recruited for the third and the fourth phases. These two phases were based on Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, to assess and confirm the factor structure. From our data, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin value was .870, and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (p < .001). The CFA demonstrated a good model fit index. From the results obtained in each phase, we established the content validity and reliability of the ACHV-PE questionnaire with 17 items.


Values; Attitudes; Physical education; Children; Questionnaire


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