Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to exercise behaviour among Macedonian college students


  • Abdulla Elezim University of Pristina,
  • Gresa Elezi American Hospital, Pristina,
  • Seryozha Gontarev Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, North Macedonia
  • Georgi Georgiev Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, North Macedonia



Trans-theoretical model, Exercise behaviour, Student


Background: This study examined the applicability of trans-theoretical model (TTM) to understand exercise behaviour among students in University "St. Cyril and Methodius" in Skopje. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. The dependent variables analysed were exercise self-efficacy expectation, decisional balance (pros and cons), social support for physical activity and exercise enjoyment. The independent variable was stage of exercise behaviour change. 1066 students representing various disciplines on campus completed a valid and reliable questionnaire during regularly scheduled classes. More than 67 percent of sample were sedentary (pre contemplation, contemplation, or preparation) whereas 17,6% were in the action stage (regularly active < 6 months) and 14,9% were in the maintenance stage (regularly active > 6 months). Results: All of the TTM constructs differed significantly across exercise stages. Students who are in the action and maintenance stage show greater self-efficacy, social support from parents and peers, and they receive greater benefit from physical activity, compared to students who are in the pre-thinking and thinking stage. In addition, students who are in the action and maintenance stage, enjoy physical activity more than students who are in the pre-thinking stage. Students who are in the stage of preparedness show greater self-efficacy than students who are in the pre-thinking and thinking stage and they receive greater social support from parents and peers, compared to students who are in the pre-thinking stage. Conclusion: Results supported the use of the entire TTM in examining exercise behaviour among college students.


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How to Cite

Elezim, A., Elezi, G., Gontarev, S., & Georgiev, G. (2020). Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to exercise behaviour among Macedonian college students. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15(3), 706–717.



Physical Education / Children & Exercise

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