Design and teaching of physical education for children and youth


  • Francesca D'Elia University of Salerno, Italy
  • Patrizia Tortella Free University of Bozen, Italy
  • Italo Sannicandro University of Foggia, Italy
  • Tiziana D'Isanto University of Salerno, Italy



Needs of moving, Physical inactivity trends, Teaching methods


The reduction of physical activity is a phenomenon that affects the world population at all ages (childhood and adolescence, adulthood and third age) whose effects do not only concern the predisposition to risk factors for health but also more generally well-being and good individual bio-psycho-social functioning. Sedentary lifestyle, unfortunately, no longer affects adults and the elderly, but it is an unhealthy habit that is grafted more and more precociously, also extending to children and adolescents. In fact, during the developmental age we observe alarming trends of involution of motor skills with a general trend of reduction in the quality and quantity of movements in both children and adolescents; over the last fifty years, unfortunately, the coordination of school-age children has regressed, manifesting itself with a significant delay in the development of coordination especially in urban populations, as well as being affected by a serious and widespread problem of overweight and obesity in age paediatric. This paper analyses some special educational needs of movement during childhood and adolescence, even in the presence of disabilities, and tracks the main teaching methods that enhance the body and movement and the sensory perceptive system.


Download data is not yet available.


Altavilla, G., Furino, F., Marika, D.P., Raiola, G. (2015). Physical skills, sport learning and socio-affective education [Fizičke vještine, sportsko učenje I društveno-afektivno obrazovanje]Sport Science, 8, pp. 44-46.

Ausubel, D. (2004). Educazione e processi cognitivi. Guida psicologica per gli insegnanti. Milano: Franco Angeli.

Dewey, J. (1961). Democrazia ed educazione (Democracy and Education: an introduction to the philosophy of education). Firenze: La Nuova Italia.

Di Domenico, F., Fattore, S., D'Isanto, T. (2019a). The movement: Complexity and reductionism, evidence in comparison. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14 (Proc4), pp. 1-8.

Di Domenico, F., Fattore, S., Pignato, S., D'Isanto, T. (2019b). Relationship between motor learning and reaction capacity in motor task. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14 (Proc4), pp. S1030-S1037.

Di Domenico, F., D'isanto, T., Raiola, G. (2019c). Role of speed and agility in the effectiveness of motor performance. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, art. no. 271, pp. 1836-1842.

D'Isanto, T. (2019). State of art and didactics opportunities of physical education teaching in primary school. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, art. no. 257, pp. 1759-1762.

D'Isanto, T. (2016). Pedagogical value of the body and physical activity in childhood [Article@Pedagoška vrijednost tijela i tjelesne aktivnosti udjetinjstvu] Sport Science, 9, pp. 13-18

Elia, F.D., Domenico, F.D., Isanto, T.D., Altavilla, G., Raiola, G. (2020). From biomechanics to motor learning, Acta Medica Mediterranea, 36 (5), pp. 3073-3078.

Gaetano, A. (2016). Relationship between physical inactivity and effects on individual health status, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16, pp. 1069-1074.

Gaetano, R. (2012). Motor learning and didactics into physical education and sport documents in middle school-first cycle of education in Italy, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12 (2), pp. 157-163.

Gardner H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: BasicBooks.

Giovanni, E., Francesca, D., Gaetano, R. (2020). A method to promote the development of intelligence and game skills in youth football, Teoria ta Metodika Fizicnogo Vihovanna, 20 (3), pp. 142-148.

Goleman D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Haga, M., Tortella, P., Asonitou, K., Charitou, S., Koutsouki, D., Fumagalli, G., & Sigmundsson, H. (2018). Cross-cultural aspects: Exploring motor competence among 7-to 8-year-old children from Greece, Italy, and Norway. Sage open, 8(2).

Invernizzi, P.L., Signorini, G., Bosio, A., Raiola, G., Scurati, R. (2020). Validity and reliability of self-perception-based submaximal fitness tests in young adult females: An educational perspective, Sustainability (Switzerland), 12 (6).

Merleau Ponty, M. (2003). Fenomenologia della percezione. Milano: RCS Libri.

Monacis, D., Colella, D. (2020). Active snacks for the promotion of physical activity in Southern Italy: Preliminary results. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(5), pp. 2665-2670, 363.

Montessori, M. (1950). La scoperta del bambino. Milano: Garzanti Monti, F., Farné, R., Crudeli, F., Agostini, F., Minelli, M., Ceciliani, A. (2019) The role of Outdoor Education in child development in Italian nursery schools, Early Child Development and Care, 189 (6), pp. 867-882.

Nardone P., Spinelli A., Buoncristiano M., Lauria L., Pierannunzio D., Galeone D. (2018a). Il Sistema di sorveglianza OKkio alla Salute: risultati 2016. Roma: Istituto Superiore di Sanità.

Nardone P., Pierannunzio D., Donati S., Spinelli A., Pizzi E., Ciardullo S., Andreozzi S., Cavallo F., Vieno A., Lazzeri G., Dalmasso P., Borraccino A., Charrier L., Lemma P., Canale N., Lenzi M., Marino C., Simi R., Cappello N., Galeone D. (2018b). Adolescent health behaviours in Italy 2018: HBSC - Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Bollettino epidemiologico nazionale, Roma: Istituto Superiore di Sanità.

Notarnicola, A., Vicenti, G., Fischetti, F., Laricchia, L., Guastamacchia, R., Tafuri, S., Moreti, B. (2012) Improved mental representation of space in beginner orienteers, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 114 (1), pp. 250-260.

Novak, J. (2001). L'apprendimento significativo. Le mappe concettuali per creare e usare la conoscenza. Trento: Erickson.

Patrizia, T., Guido, F., Roberto, C., Rosaria, S., Salvatore, P. (2019). The role of the educator/adult in supporting children of pre-school age in learning difficult tasks: The case of the playground "primo sport 0246". Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19.

Piaget, J. (1972). Lo sviluppo mentale del bambino. Torino: Einaudi. Raiola, G. (2020a). Proposal of rearrangement of physical training and sport sciences methodology academic disciplines in Italian university body. Sport Science, 14 (1), pp. 43-47.

Raiola, G. (2020b). The Movement and Sport Science in Italy towards the European Research Council, Physical Culture and Sport, Studies and Research, 86 (1), pp. 37-48.

Raiola, G., Domenico, F.D., Isanto, T.D., Altavilla, G., Elia, F.D. (2020c). Biomechanics core, Acta Medica Mediterranea, 36 (5), pp. 3079-3083.

Raiola, G., D'Elia, F., Altavilla, G. (2018). Physical activity and sports sciences between European Research Council and academic disciplines in Italy, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 13, pp. S283-S295.

Raiola, G. (2017). Motor learning and teaching method, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17, art. no. 236, pp. 2239-2243.

Raiola, G. (2013). Body knowledge and motor skills, Knowledge Cultures, 1 (6), pp. 64-72.

Russo, G., Nigro, F., Raiola, G., Ceciliani, A. (2019). Self-esteem in physically active middle school students, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, pp. 1984-1988.

Sgrò, F., Quinto, A., Platania, F., Lipoma, M. (2019). Assessing the impact of a physical education project based on games approach on the actual motor competence of primary school children, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, pp. 781-786.

Sgrò, F., Quinto, A., Messana, L., Pignato, S., Lipoma, M. (2017). Assessment of gross motor developmental level in italian primary school children, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17 (3), art. no. 192, pp. 1954-1959.

Tiziana, D., Antonetta, M., Gaetano, A. (2017). Health and physical activity [Zdravlje i tjelesna aktivnost] Sport Science, 10 (1), pp. 100-105.

Tortella, P., & Fumagalli, G. (2017). The effect of teaching methodologies in promoting physical and cognitive development in children. Physical Activity and Educational Achievement: Insights from Exercise Neuroscience, 297, 303-316.

World Health Organization (‎2001)‎. International classification of functioning, disability and health : ICF. World Health Organization.

World Health Organization (‎2010)‎. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. World Health Organization.



How to Cite

D’Elia, F., Tortella, P., Sannicandro, I., & D’Isanto, T. (2020). Design and teaching of physical education for children and youth. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15(4proc), S1527-S1533.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>