Soccer differences in order to explosive strength and rapidity among defenders, midfielders and forwards during COVID-19


  • Maria D'Apice University of Salerno, Italy
  • Teresa Iona University of Catanzaro, Italy
  • Tiziana D'Isanto University of Salerno, Italy



Training protocol, Speed, Power, Sports performance, Roles


Problem statement. The aim of the study is to verify if the same protocol brings the same results towards the three roles of soccer, in terms of explosive power and speed, and if the COVID-19 affected the performance during the period September-December. Methods. Eighteen (n = 18) Italian élite soccer players, without goalkeepers, participated in this study (age 24.5 ± 5.9; body weight 75.2 ± 6.0; height 181.2 ± 7.1) from July to December, a period in which the whole team was infected by COVID-19. The players were monitored through two specific tests, CMJ and Speed test on 10 meters, detected in three different periods and in relation to three different playing positions: (D) defenders, (M) midfielders and (F) forwards. Soccer players have been trained following the same program training. A 3x3 Mixed-design analysis of variance was used to verify differences between the three roles and the results of the three measurements taken in July, September and December for each test. Results. The results is statistically significant (p < .05) for the within factor in the two tests, but there is no significant effect between groups (p > .05). Conclusion. In relation to the protocol used, we noticed that in terms of speed the forward role had the greatest improvement, while in terms of power in the lower limbs the role of the midfielder. Therefore, it is not possible to use the same training protocol for all roles, but to program your own personalized training plan based on the results of the match analysis and the performance model of each role.


Download data is not yet available.


Altavilla, G., D'Isanto, T., & Di Tore, P. A. (2018a). Anthropometrics characteristics and jumping ability in basketball. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 13(Proc 2), S385-S392.

Altavilla, G. (2020). Energetic cost in the different running conditions in team sport for the educational teaching method. Sport Science, 14(1), 17-20.

Altavilla G., Furino F., Di Palmo M., & Raiola, G. (2015). Physical skills, sport learning and socio-affective education. Sport Science, 8(S1), 44-46.

Altavilla, G., Mazzeo, F., D'Elia, F., & Raiola, G. (2018b). Physical commitment and specific work for each role in an elite soccer team. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(2), 570-574.

Altavilla, G. (2019). Monitoring training to adequate the teaching method in training: An interpretative concept. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, 1763-1766.

Altavilla, G., Riela, L., Di Tore, A.P., Raiola, G. (2017). The physical effort required from professional football players in different playing positions. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(3):2007-2012.

Bangsbo J. (1994). Energy demands in competitive soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 12 Spec No, S5-S12.

Bangsbo, J., Mohr, M., Poulsen, A., Perez-Gomez, J., & Krustrup, P. (2006). Training and testing the elite athlete. Review. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 4(1), 1-14.

Bishop DJ, Girard O. (2013). Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes. Br J Sports Med, 47: 17-21.

Ceruso, R., Esposito, G., Federici, A., Valentini, M., & D'Isanto, T. (2019). Preliminary work about the basis data for monitoring youth soccer team planning training. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(Proc2): S251-S257.

Christensen, P. M., Krustrup, P., Gunnarsson, T. P., Kiilerich, K., Nybo, L., & Bangsbo, J. (2011). VO2 kinetics and performance in soccer players after intense training and inactivity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(9), 1716-1724.

Daniel Weimar, Lisa Carola Holthoff, Rui Biscaia. (2021) A bright spot for a small league: social media performance in a football league without a COVID-19 lockdown. European Sport Management Quarterly, 0:0, 1-22.

D'Andrea, D., Esposito, G., & Invernizzi, P.L. (2021). The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the training of athletes with disabilities in the 7-a-side football championship. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 16(3proc), S1055-S1062.

D'Elia F, D'Andrea D, Esposito G, Altavilla G, Raiola G (2021a). Increase the Performance Level of Young Basketball Players through the Use of High Intensity Interval Training. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, vol. 9, p. 445-450, ISSN: 2381-4403.

D'Elia F, Esposito G, D'Isanto T, Altavilla G, Raiola G (2021b). Impact of the racket on mobility performance in wheelchair tennis. . Sportske Nauke i Zdravlje Sport Sciences and Health, vol. 11, p. 11-15, ISSN: 2232-822X.

Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Calderon Montero, F.J., Bachl, N., Pigozzi, F. (2007). Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. Int J Sports Med.; 28:222-227.

Di Salvo, V., Gregson, W., Atkinson, G., Tordoff, P., and Drust, B. (2009). Analysis of high intensity activity in premier league soccer. Int. J. Sports Med. 30, 205-212.

Esposito, G., Ceruso, R., & D'Isanto, T. (2019a). Evaluation of some quantitative aspects in the young soccer players training process during puberty. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, 1777-1783.

Esposito, G., Ceruso, R., Valentini, M., & D'Isanto, T. (2019b). The use of enabling tests to provide a qualitative measurement of the sport skill level of small soccer players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(Proc4): S592-S601.

Esposito, G., & Raiola, G. (2020). Monitoring the performance and technique consolidation in youth football players. Trends in Sport Sciences, 27 (2), 93-100.

Izzo, R., Rossini, U., Raiola, G., Cejudo Palomo, A., Hosseini Varde'I, C. (2020a) Insurgence of fatigue and its implications in the selection and accuracy of passes in football. A case study. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20 (4), art. no. 269, pp. 1996-2002.

Izzo, R., D'isanto, T., Raiola, G., Cejudo, A., Ponsano, N., Varde'i, C.H. (2020b) The role of fatigue in football matches, performance model analysis and evaluation during quarters using live global positioning system technology at 50hz Sport Science, 13 (1), pp. 30-35.

Izzo, R., Altavilla, G., Cejudo, A., Raiola, G., D'Isanto, T., Giovannelli, M. (2020c)Performance improvement in yo-yo intermittent recovery test Level 2 and during official matches: The role of speed endurance training production in Élite football players Sport Mont, 18 (3), pp. 61-66.

Luhtanen, P. (1994). Biomechanical aspects. In: Football (Soccer). B.Ekblom, ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.pp.59-77.

Magni Mohr, George P. Nassis, Joao Brito, Morten B. Randers, Carlo Castagna, Dan Parnell & Peter Krustrup (2020). Return to elite football after the COVID-19 lockdown. Managing Sport and Leisure.

Maffiuletti, N. A., Aagaard, P., Blazevich, A. J., Folland, J., Tillin, N., & Duchateau, J. (2016). Rate of force development: physiological and methodological considerations. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(6), 1091-1116.

Michael Drewes, Frank Daumann & Florian Follert (2021). Exploring the sports economic impact of COVID-19 on professional soccer. Soccer & Society, 22:1-2, 125-137.

Miranda, G., Aliberti, S., Invernizzi, P. L. (2021). Effects of an 8-week intermittent aerobic training program on aerobic power in a professional soccer team. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 16(3proc): S1031-S1038.

Mohr, Magni & Krustrup, Peter & Bangsbo, Jens. (2003). Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. Journal of Sports Sciences. 21, 519-28.

Raiola, G. (2020a) Proposal of rearrangement of physical training and sport sciences methodology academic disciplines in Italian university body, Sport Science, 14 (1), pp. 43-47.

Raiola, G. (2020b) The Movement and Sport Science in Italy towards the European Research Council, Physical Culture and Sport, Studies and Research, 86 (1), pp. 37-48.

Raiola, G. (2019a). Complex study for an epistemology of Exercise and sport sciences: a) keyconceptsofboth ERC subpanels and CUN keywords; b) Physical training and sport methodology sciences academic disciplines in pedagogy recruitment sector and biomedical one: a correlationships study. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, 1748-1754.

Raiola, G. (2019b). Survey on exercise and sport sciences in Italy. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14 (4proc), S1163-S1168.

Raiola, G., Aliberti, S., Esposito, G., Altavilla, G., D'Isanto, T., & D'Elia, F. (2020a). How has the Practice of Physical Activity Changed During the COVID-19 Quarantine? A Preliminary Survey. Teorìâ Ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, 20(4), 242-247.

Raiola, G., Aliberti, S. (2021). Outdoor sports and physical activity during social distancing by sports sciences and exercise course students at the university of Salerno, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 21, 612-617.

Raiola, G., Di Domenico, F. (2021). Physical and sports activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 21, 477-482.

Rampinini, E., Coutts, A.J., Castagna, C., Sassi, R., Impellizzeri, F.M. (2007). Variation in top level soccer match performance. Int J Sports Med., 28:1018-1024.

Rampinini, E., Donghi, F., Martin, M., Bosio, A., Riggio, M., & Maffiuletti, N. A. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Serie A Soccer Players' Physical Qualities. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 1345-9262.

Sannicandro, I., Piccinno, A., Rosa, R.A., Raiola, G., Cofano, G. (2020a) Analysis of external load during ssg 5vs5 with and without external wildcard (Jolly) soccer players. Sport Science, 14 (1), pp. 65-71.

Sannicandro, I., Cofano, G., Raiola, G., Rosa, R.A., Colella, D. (2020b) Analysis of external load in different soccer small-sided games played with external wildcard players Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20 (2), art. no. 98, pp. 672-679.

Sannicandro, I., Piccinno, A., Cofano, G., Lupelli, N., Rosa, R. (2014). Explosive strength capacity in the lower limbs and speed performance in young soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48.


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

D’Apice, M., Iona, T., & D’Isanto, T. (2021). Soccer differences in order to explosive strength and rapidity among defenders, midfielders and forwards during COVID-19. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 16(4proc), S1823-S1832.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>