The effects of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE) training on mindfulness, and flow in national competitive swimmers
There are limited studies examining the effects of a mindfulness intervention for a specific sport population group. The aim of this applied study was to investigate the effects of a mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) program on the mindfulness and flow of adolescent swimmers. Sixteen competitive adolescent swimmers were split into MSPE (n = 9) and relaxation training (RT) (n = 7) groups for eight weeks. Participants completed measures of trait and state flow mindfulness pre and post intervention. Paired t test results revealed that the MSPE group improved trait flow characteristics and global trait flow. ANCOVA analysis also revealed significantly higher effects on global trait flow and the action-awareness merging and clear goals subscales for the MSPE group compared to the RT group. These results suggested that sport orientated mindfulness interventions can psychologically benefit competitive youth swimmers. The study indicates that further research could consider applied designs to investigate in more detail the experiences this population has with specific mindfulness exercises.
Bernier, M., Thienot, E., Codron, R., & Fournier, J.F. (2009) A multi-study investigation examining the relationship between mindfulness and acceptance approaches and sport performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3, 320-333. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.320
Bernstien, D.A., Borkovec, T.D., &Hazlett-Stevens, H. (2000) New directions in progressive relaxation training: A guidebook for helping professionals. Praeger. London.
Biegal, G.M., Chang, K., Garrett, A., and Edwards, M. (2014) Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction for Teens. Cited In: Baer, R.A. (Ed) Mindfulness-based Treatment Approaches: Clinicians guide to evidence base and applications(2nd edition) (pp. 189-212). Elsevier. London. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-416031-6.00009-8
Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N.D., Carmondy, J., &Devins, G. (2004) Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 3, 230-241. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph077
Brown, K.W., & Ryan, R.M. (2003) The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 4, 822-848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1242
Brown, K. W., West, A. M., Loverich, T. M., & Biegel, G. M. (2011). Assessing adolescent mindfulness: Validation of an Adapted Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in adolescent normative and psychiatric populations. Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1023–1033. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021338
Cathcart, S., McGregor, M., & Groundwater, E. (2014) Mindfulness and flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 8, 119-141. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2014-0018
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edition). Routledge, London.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
Davidson, R.J. (2002). Toward a biology of positive affect and compassion. In R.J. Davidson (Eds), Visions of compassion: Western scientists and Tibetan Buddhists examine human nature (pp. 107-130). New York, NY: Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130430.003.0006
Dunlap, W. P., Cortina, J. M., Vaslow, J. B., & Burke, M. J. (1996). Meta-analysis of experiments with matched groups or repeated measures designs. Psychological Methods, 1, 170-177. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.1.2.170
Hasker, S.M. (2010).Evaluation of the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach for enhancing athletic performance (Doctoral Dissertation). Indiana, PA: Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
Jackson, S.A. (2016). Flow and mindfulness in performance, Cited in: A.L. Baltzell, (Ed) Mindfulness and performance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge (pp. 78-100). https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139871310.005
Jackson, S.A., &Eklund, R.C.,(2002). Assessing flow in physical activity: The flow state scale-2 and Dispositional Flow scale-2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 133-150. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.24.2.133
Jackson, S.A.,&Eklund, R.C, (2004) Relationships between quality of experience and participation in diverse performance settings. Paper presented at the 39th Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society, Sydney, Australia. Australian Journal of Psychology, 56, (September Supplement), 193.
Jha, A.P., Krompinger, J., &Baime, M.J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective &Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109-119. https://doi.org/10.3758/cabn.7.2.109
Jha, A.P., Stanley, E.A., Kiyonaga, A., Wong, L., &Gelfand, L., (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion, 10, 54-64. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018438
Johnson, D., Kerri, E. Joyce & Kruger, J. (2003). "Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 12 (3): 83–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01235
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994) Whereever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in daily life. New York, NY: Hyperion.
Kaufmann, K.A., Glass, C.R., &Arnkoff, D.B. (2009). Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3, 4, 334-356. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.334
Kaufmann, K.A., Glass, C.R., &Pineau, T.R. (2018).Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement: Mental Training for Athletes and Coaches. Washington D.C, American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000048-000
Lau, M.A., Bishop, S.R., Segal, Z.V., Buis, T., Anderson, N.D., Carlson, L., & Carmody, J. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 12, 1445-1467. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20326
Marks, D.R. (2008). The Buddha’s extra scoop: Neural correlates of mindfulness an clinical sport psychology. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 2, 216-241. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2.3.216
Mesagno, C., &Mullane-Grant, T. (2010). A comparison of different pre- performance routines as possible choking interventions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 343-360. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2010.491780
Moore, Z.E., & Gardner, F.L. (2011). Understanding models of performance enhancement from the perspective of emotion regulation. Athletic Insight, 3, ,3 247-260.
Nakamura, J.,&Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The concept of flow. In C.R. Snyder and S.J. Lopez (Eds), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 89-105). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rosner, B. (2010).Fundamentals of Biostatistics (7th edition). Blackwell. London.
Sappington, R., &Longshore, K. (2015). Systematically reviewing the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for enhanced athletic performance, Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 9, 232-262. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2014-0017
Scott-Hamilton, J., Schutte, N. & Brown, R.F. (2016). The effects of a mindfulness intervention on sports anxiety, pessimism, and flow in competitive cyclists. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 8, 1, 85-103. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12063
Slagter, H.A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L.L., Francis, A.D., Nieuwenhuis, S., David, J.M., & Davidson, R.J. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLos Biology, 5, e138. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138
Swann, C., Keegan, R.J., Piggot, D., & Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 6, 807-819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.05.006
Tabachnick, B.C., &Fidell, L.S. (2013).Using multivariate statistics (6thedn). New York. Pearson.
Thompson, R.W., Kaufmann, K.A., De Petrillo, L.A., Glass, C.R., &Arnkoff, D.B. (2011). One year follow up of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) for archers, golfers, and runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5, 2, 99-116. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.5.2.99
Tucker, R. (2009). The anticipatory regulation of performance: The physiological basis for pacing strategies and the development of a perception-based model of exercise performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 392–400. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.050799
Whudan, N. (2014). Effects of relaxation training on muscle tension and the performance level of 50m front crawl swimming. Science, Movement and Health, 14, 1, 143-148.
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.