Dependence on resources and cooperation networks of the National Olympic Academies
This study seeks to identify the strategic and operational factors necessary for the effective operation of the International Olympic Academy (IOA), and of the National Olympic Academies (NOAs). It applies Resource Dependence Theory (RDP) and Inter-organizational Relationships Theory (IOR) to the institutional environment of the NOAs. A set of exploratory semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from the International Olympic Committee (IOC), IOA, NOAs and Academics. A thematic analysis of the interview data provided themes to be incorporated into a questionnaire conducted with NOA directors and NOC officials focusing on relationships of the NOAs with other organisations and the implications for their autonomy. The nature of the field of NOA activity and its environment, is such that, for many NOAs, it is beset by an imbalance of power. This is reflected in the resource dependency of many NOAs on, in particular, NOCs and ultimately the IOC for legitimacy, human, financial and physical resources. The paper highlights a number of ways in which these relationships might be modified for the benefit of all the organisations involved.
Babiak, K., & Thibault, L. (2009). Challenges in multiple cross-sector partnerships. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38(1), 117-143. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764008316054
Babiak, K. (2007). Determinants of inter-organizational relationships: The case of a Canadian nonprofit sport organization. Journal of Sport Management, 21(3), 338-376. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.21.3.338
Boyatzis, R. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic a. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Breuer, C., & Poupaux, S. (2008). Economie e activité des associations sportives en Allemagne et en France: Ressemblances et divergences. Revue Juridique et Économique du Sport, 86, 183-195.
Brittain, I., Boccarro, J., Byers, T., & Stewart, K. (2018). Legacies and mega-events: Fact or fairy tales?. New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315558981
Caslavova, E., & Berka, P. (2005). The financial management of sport clubs in the Czech Republic. Kinesiology, 37(2), 204-213.
Clegg, S. R., & Hardy, C. (1999). Studying organization. Theory and method.. London: Sage.
Cornforth, C. (2003). The governance of public and non-profit organisations: What do boards do?. London: Routledge.
Coubertin, P. d. (1934/2000). To my Hellenic friends. An open letter dated April, 1934, by Pierre de Coubertin. In N. Müller (Ed.), Olympism: Selected writings (p. 278). Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.
Crabtree, B., & Miller, W. (1999). A template approach to text analysis: Developing and using cookbooks. In B. Crabtree & W. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research (pp. 163-177). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Cropper, S., Huxham, C., Ebers, M., & Smith Ring, P. (2008). Introducing inter-organizational relations. In S. Cropper, C. Huxham, M. Ebers & P. Smith Ring (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of inter-organizational relations (pp. 3-24). Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199282944.003.0001
Doz, Y., & Hamel, G. (1998). Alliance advantage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Durantez, C. (2015). The role of the IOA in the spread of the Olympic ideal. Journal of Management, 13(6), 31-40.
Durantez, C. (2017). 13th Joint Session for Directors of National Olympic Academies. Livani Publishing Organization.
Enjolras, B. (2002). The commercialization of voluntary sport organizations in Norway. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector, 31(3), 352-376. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764002313003
Fourie, J., & Spronk, K. (2011). South African mega-events and their impact on tourism. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 16(1), 75-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2011.576119
Froelich, K. A. (1999). Diversification of revenue strategies: Evolving resource dependence in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(3), 246-268. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764099283002
Georgiadis, K. (2008). National Olympic academies. In 9th joint international session for presidents or directors of national Olympic academies and officials of national Olympic committees (Vol. 9, pp. 27-37). Livani Publishing Organization.
Georgiadis, K. (2011). The national Olympic Academies. In C. Koulouri & K. Georgiadis (Eds.), The International Olympic Academy. A history of an Olympic institution (pp. 265-284). Athens: Thetis Xanthaki.
Girard-Savoy, N. (2008). The contribution of Olympic Solidarity to the department of Olympic education. Journal of Management, 9(6), 63-69N. Girard-Savoy, 9th joint international session for presidents or directors of national Olympic academies and officials of national Olympic committees. Livani Publishing Organization.
Gratton, C., & Preuss, H. (2008). Maximizing Olympic impacts by building up legacies. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 25(14), 1922-1938. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523360802439023
Gray, B. (1989). Collaborating: Finding a common ground for multiparty problems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Greening, D. W., & Gray, B. (1994). Testing a model of organizational response to social and political issues. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 467-498. https://doi.org/10.5465/256697
Gruneau, R. (1993). The critique of sport in modernity. In M. J. Dunning & R. Pearton (Eds.), The sport process: A comparative and developmental approach. Leeds: Human Kinetics.
Hall, M. H., Andrukow, A., Barr, C., Brock, K., de Wit, M., Embuldeniya, D. et al. (2003). The capacity to serve: A qualitative study of the challenges facing Canada's nonprofit and voluntary organizations. Toronto: Canadian Centre for Philanthropy.
Harrigan, K. R. (1995). The role of intercompany cooperation in integrated strategy: Strategic alliances and partnering arrangements. Advances in strategic management, 11(B), 5-20.
Hennart, J. F., & Zeng, M. (2005). Structural determinants of joint venture performance. European Management Review, 2, 105-115. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.emr.1500034
Henry, I., & Lee, P. C. (2004). Governance and ethics. In J. Beech & S. Chadwick (Eds.), The business of sport management (pp. 25-42). London: Pearson.
Hillman, A. J., & Dalziel, T. (2003). Boards of directors and firm performance: Integrating agency and resource dependence perspectives. The Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 383-396. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2003.10196729
Hillman, A. J., Withers, M. C., & Collins, B. J. (2009). Resource dependence theory: A review. The Academy of Management Review, 35(6), 1404-1427. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206309343469
Horch, H-D. (1992). Geld, Macht und Engagement in Freiwilligen Vereinigungen. Grundlage einer Wirtschaftssoziologie von Non-Profit-Organisationen. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.
Horch, H-D. (1994a). Does government financing have a detrimental effect on the autonomy of voluntary associations? Evidence from German sport clubs. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 29(3), 269-285. https://doi.org/10.1177/101269029402900303
Horch, H-D. (1994b). Resource composition and oligarchization: Evidence from German sport clubs. European Journal for Sport Management, 1(2), 52-267.
Hoye, R., Smith, A., Nicholson, M., Stewart, B., & Westerbeek, H. (2009). Sport management principles and applications. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
International Olympic Academy. (2018). Directory of national Olympic academies. Athens.
International Olympic Committee. (2018). Olympic charter. In force from 26 June 2019. Lausanne.
Kanter, R. M. (1994). Collaborative advantage: The art of alliances. Harvard Business Review, 72(4), 96-108.
Kaplanidou, K., Al Emadi, A., Sagas, M., Diop, A., & Fritz, G. (2016). Business legacy planning for mega events: The case of the 2022 World Cup in Qatar. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4103-4111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.03.041
Kidd, B. (1996). Taking the rhetoric seriously: Proposals for Olympic education. Quest, pp. 82-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1996.10484180
Leopkey, B., & Parent, M. M. (2012). Olympic games legacy: From general benefits to sustainable long-term legacy. International Journal of the History of Sport, 29(6), 924-943. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523367.2011.623006
MacAloon, J. J. (2016). Agenda 2020 and the Olympic Movement, Sport in Society. Sport in Society, 19(6), 767-785. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2015.1119960
Müller, N. (1998). International Olympic Academy. Thirty-eight years of lectures (1961-1998). Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.
Müller, N. (2000). Olympism: Selected writings (N. Müller, Ed.). Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.
Nichols, G., Taylor, P., James, M., Holmes, K., King, L., & Garett, R. (2005). Pressures on the UK voluntary sport sector. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 16(1), 33-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-005-3231-0
Oliver, C. (1990). Determinants of inter-organizational relationships: Integration and future directions. Academy of Management Review, 15(2), 241-265. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1990.4308156
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. (1978). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Preuss, H. (2007). The conceptualization and measurement of mega sport event legacies. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3-4), 207-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775080701736957
Preuss, H. (2015). A framework for identifying the legacies of a mega sport event. Leisure Studies, 34(6), 643-664. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2014.994552
Preuss, H. (2019). Event legacy framework and measurement. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 11(1), 103-118. https://doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2018.1490336
Scott, W. R. (2003). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Shaw, S., & Allen, J. (2006). 'We actually trust the community': Examining the dynamics of a non-profit funding relationship in New Zealand. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 17(3), 211-220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-006-9018-0
Slack, T. (1997). Understanding sport organizations: The application of organization theory. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Slack, T., & Hinings, B. (1994). Institutional pressures and isomorphic change: An empirical test. Organizational Studies, 15(6), 803-827. https://doi.org/10.1177/017084069401500602
Solberg, H. A. (2018). Why cities are willing to host them, despite the lack of economic benefits. In J. Brittain, T. Bocarro, Byers & K. Swart (Eds.), Legacies and mega events: Fact or fairy tales? (pp. 43-59). New York, NY: Routledge.
Thibault, L., & Harvey, J. (2007). Fostering interorganizational linkages in the Canadian sport delivery system. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 45-68. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.11.1.45
Tien, C., Lo, H., & Lin, H. (2011). The economic benefits of mega events: A myth or a reality? A longitudinal study on the Olympic Games. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.25.1.11
Tomlinson, A. (2014). Olympic legacies: Recurrent rhetoric and harsh realities. Contemporary Social Sciences, 9(2), 137-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/21582041.2014.912792
Vos, S., Breesch, D., Késenne, S., Van Noecke, J., Vanreusel, B., & Scheerder, J. (2011). Governmental subsidies and coercive pressures. Evidence from sport clubs and their resource dependencies. European Journal for Sport and Society, 8(4), 257-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2011.11687882
Wicker, P., Vos, S., Scheerder, J., & Breuer, C. (2013). The link between resource problems and interorganizational relationships: A quantitative study of Western European sport clubs. Managing Leisure, 18(1), 31-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/13606719.2012.742226
Zimbalist, A. (2017). The economic legacy of Rio 2016. In A. Zimbalist (Ed.), Rio 2016: Olympic myths, hard realities (pp. 207-238). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.