Relationship between internal and external load metrics in professional male basketball players
Keywords:Performance analysis of sport, Monitoring, Jump, Stress, Training
Quantifying both external and internal training loads that athletes are exposed to during training sessions is often recommended to assess multifactorial sport-specific demands. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between a widely used subjective marker of internal load (rate of perceived exertion - RPE) and external load variables obtained from an innovative inertial measurement unit (IMU) device within a cohort of professional male basketball players. Twenty-one athletes competing in the first- and second-tier national basketball leagues in Europe wore an IMU device (i.e., VertTM) during their regular practice session and reported an RPE score (Borg CR-10 scale) immediately post-practice. The findings of this study reveal the presence of a strong significant relationship (r = 0.714) between Stress and RPE. However, weak non-significant relationships (r = 0.198-0.287) were observed between RPE and all jump-related metrics (Jumps, Jumps 15+, Jumps 20+, Average Jump Height) as well as Active Minutes (r = 0.330), indicating that an increase in internal load is more dependent on the type of activity that players perform rather than the duration of the practice session. Overall, these findings may help sports scientists and strength and conditioning practitioners detect changes in training load throughout a competitive season in male basketball players and ultimately improve the acute and chronic training-adaptation monitoring process.
Andre, M. J., Fry, A. C., Luebbers, P. E., Hudy, A., Dietz, P. R., & Cain, G. J. (2018). Weekly salivary biomarkers across a season for elite men collegiate basketball players. International Journal of Exercise Science, 11(6), 439-451.
Aoki, M. S., Ronda, L. T., Marcelino, P. R., Drago, G., Carling, C., Bradley, P. S., & Moreira, A. (2017). Monitoring training loads in professional basketball players engaged in a periodized training program. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(2), 348-358. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001507
Benson, L. C., Tait, T. J., Befus, K., Choi, J., Hillson, C., Stilling, C., ... & Emery, C. A. (2020). Validation of a commercially available inertial measurement unit for recording jump load in youth basketball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(8), 928-936. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1737360
Berdejo-del-Fresno, D., & González-Ravé, J. M. (2014). Validation of an instrument to control and monitor the training load in basketball: The BATLOC tool. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2(4), 171-176. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajssm-2-4-10
Cabarkapa, D. V., Cabarkapa, D., & Fry, A. C. (2022). Positional differences in external load in professional male volleyball players. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10(1), 25-28. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajssm-10-1-5
Cabarkapa, D., Eserhaut, D. A., Cabarkapa, D. V., Philipp, N. M., Fry, A. C. (In press). Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Changes During a Game in Professional Male Basketball Players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research.
Charlton, P. C., Kenneally-Dabrowski, C., Sheppard, J., & Spratford, W. (2016). A simple method for quantifying jump loads in volleyball athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(3), 241-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.07.007
Conte, D., Palumbo, F., Guidotti, F., Matulaitis, K., Capranica, L., & Tessitore, A. (2022). Investigating External and Internal Loads in Male Older Adult Basketball Players during Official Games. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 7(4), 111. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040111
Coutts, A. J., Crowcroft, S., & Kempton, T. (2021). Developing athlete monitoring systems: theoretical basis and practical applications. In M. Kellmann & J. Beckmann (Eds.). Recovery and Well-being in Sport and Exercise, (pp. 17-31). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003258117-3
de Arruda, A. F. S., Aoki, M. S., Drago, G., & Moreira, A. (2019). Salivary testosterone concentration, anxiety, perceived performance and ratings of perceived exertion in basketball players during semi-final and final matches. Physiology & Behavior, 198, 102-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.10.008
Dellal, A., Keller, D., Carling, C., Chaouachi, A., Wong, D. P., & Chamari, K. (2010). Physiologic effects of directional changes in intermittent exercise in soccer players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(12), 3219-3226. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b94a63
Foster, C., Florhaug, J. A., Franklin, J., Gottschall, L., Hrovatin, L. A., Parker, S., ... & Dodge, C. (2001). A new approach to monitoring exercise training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 15(1), 109-115. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200102000-00019
Foster, C., Boullosa, D., McGuigan, M., Fusco, A., Cortis, C., Arney, B. E., ... & Porcari, J. P. (2021). 25 years of session rating of perceived exertion: historical perspective and development. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 16(5), 612-621. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0599
French, D., & Ronda, L. T. (Eds.). (2021). NSCA's Essentials of Sport Science. Human Kinetics.
Greig, M. P., Mc Naughton, L. R., & Lovell, R. J. (2006). Physiological and mechanical response to soccer-specific intermittent activity and steady-state activity. Research in Sports Medicine, 14(1), 29-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438620500528257
Haddad, M., Stylianides, G., Djaoui, L., Dellal, A., & Chamari, K. (2017). Session-RPE method for training load monitoring: validity, ecological usefulness, and influencing factors. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 612. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2017.00612
Halson, S. L. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine, 44(2), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0253-z
Jeong, T. S., Reilly, T., Morton, J., Bae, S. W., & Drust, B. (2011). Quantification of the physiological loading of one week of "pre-season" and one week of "in-season" training in professional soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(11), 1161-1166. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.583671
Luebbers, P. E., Andre, M. J., Fry, A. C., Olsen, L. A., Pfannestiel, K. B., & Cabarkapa, D. (2022). Hormonal responses and jump performance across a season in collegiate women basketball players. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 30(1), 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2021-0048
Lupo, C., Tessitore, A., Gasperi, L., & Gomez, M. A. R. (2017). Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions. Biology of Sport, 34(1), 11-17. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2017.63381
Montgomery, P. G., Pyne, D. B., & Minahan, C. L. (2010). The physical and physiological demands of basketball training and competition. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 5(1), 75-86. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.1.75
Moreira, A., Crewther, B., Freitas, C. G., Arruda, A. F., Costa, E. C., & Aoki, M. S. (2012). Session RPE and salivary immune-endocrine responses to simulated and official basketball matches in elite young male athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 52(6), 682-687.
Paulauskas, H., Kreivyte, R., Scanlan, A. T., Moreira, A., Siupsinskas, L., & Conte, D. (2019). Monitoring workload in elite female basketball players during the in-season phase: weekly fluctuations and effect of playing time. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 14(7), 941-948. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0741
Sansone, P., Tessitore, A., Paulauskas, H., Lukonaitiene, I., Tschan, H., Pliauga, V., & Conte, D. (2019). Physical and physiological demands and hormonal responses in basketball small-sided games with different tactical tasks and training regimes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(5), 602-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.11.017
Saw, A. E., Main, L. C., & Gastin, P. B. (2016). Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(5), 281-291. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094758
Scanlan, A. T., Wen, N., Tucker, P. S., & Dalbo, V. J. (2014). The relationships between internal and external training load models during basketball training. Journal of Strength & Conditioning research, 28(9), 2397-2405. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000458
Schelling, X., & Torres, L. (2016). Accelerometer load profiles for basketball-specific drills in elite players. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 15(4), 585.
Svilar, L., Castellano, J., & Jukić, I. (2018a). Load monitoring system in top-level basketball team: Relationship between external and internal training load. Kinesiology, 50(1), 25-33. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.50.1.4
Svilar, L., Castellano, J., Jukic, I., & Casamichana, D. (2018b). Positional differences in elite basketball: selecting appropriate training-load measures. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(7), 947-952. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0534
Williford, H. N., Olson, M. S., Gauger, S., Duey, W. J., & Blessing, D. L. (1998). Cardiovascular and metabolic costs of forward, backward, and lateral motion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(9), 1419-1423. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199809000-00011
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 University of Alicante
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.