Effect of Sprint Approach Velocity and Distance on Deceleration Performance in NCAA Division I Female Softball Players

Authors

  • Nicolas M Philipp University of Kansas, United States
  • Stryder D Blackburn University of Kansas Athletic Department, United States
  • Dimitrije Cabarkapa University of Kansas - Jayhawk Athletic Performance Laboratory, United States
  • Andrew C Fry University of Kansas - Jayhawk Athletic Performance Lab, United States

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2023.183.03

Keywords:

Biomechanics, Deceleration, Softball, Sprint

Abstract

Team sports require athletes to rapidly reduce whole body momentum and velocity, to efficiently change direction, or to avoid defenders. Decelerations often occur following varying approach distances and velocities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different sprinting approach distances, and therefore velocities and momenta on measures of horizontal deceleration performance within female NCAA Division I softball players. Athletes performed an acceleration:deceleration assessment (ADA) over 20 yards (18.29 m) (ADA20) and 10 yards (9.14 m) (ADA10), respectively. The sample was divided into high and low performance groups for approach velocity and approach momentum, and between-group differences were studied for each test. Correlations between measures of deceleration were analyzed between the ADA10 and ADA20. Results suggested that during the ADA20 trials, athletes initiated the deceleration phase at greater approach velocities (p < 0.001, ES = 2.71) and momenta (p < 0.001, ES = 2.65), generating greater reductions in velocity (p < 0.001, ES = 1.60) and momentum (p < 0.001, ES = 1.50). Within the ADA10, athletes within the high velocity group saw significantly greater reductions in velocity (p = 0.009, ES = 1.24). This was not observed within the ADA20. A significant negative association was found between average deceleration within the ADA10 and ADA20 (r = -0.443, p = 0.039). Findings suggest that horizontal decelerations are influenced by the approach distance, velocity, and momentum, which athletes are exposed to before initiating the deceleration phase. This should be accounted for when implementing training to enhance such qualities.

 

Funding

N/A

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Baena-Raya, A., Jiménez-Reyes, P., Romea, E. S., Soriano-Maldonado, A., & Rodríguez-Pérez, M. A. (2021). Gender-Specific Association of the sprint mechanical properties with change of direction performance in basketball. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 36(10), 2868-2874. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003974

Cohen, J. (1977). The concepts of power analysis. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-179060-8.50006-2

Dos'Santos, T., Thomas, C., Jones, P. A., & Comfort, P. (2017). Mechanical determinants of faster change of direction speed performance in male athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 696-705. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001535

Fernandes, R., Bishop, C., Turner, A. N., Chavda, S., & Maloney, S. J. (2021). Train the engine or the brakes? influence of momentum on the change of direction deficit. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 16(1), 90-96. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-1007

Freitas, T., Alcaraz, P., Bishop, C., Calleja-González, J., Arruda, A., Guerriero, A., Reis, V., Pereira, L., & Loturco, I. (2018). Change of direction deficit in National Team Rugby Union Players: Is there an influence of playing position? Sports, 7(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010002

Hader, K., Mendez-Villanueva, A., Palazzi, D., Ahmaidi, S., & Buchheit, M. (2016). Metabolic Power Requirement of Change of Direction Speed in Young Soccer Players: Not All Is What It Seems. PloS One, 11(3), e0149839. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149839

Hader, K., Palazzi, D., & Buchheit, M. (2015). Change of direction speed in soccer: how much braking is enough? Kinesiology, 47(1), 67-74.

Harper, D. J., Carling, C., & Kiely, J. (2019). High-intensity acceleration and deceleration demands in Elite Team Sports Competitive Match Play: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Sports Medicine, 49(12), 1923-1947. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01170-1

Harper, D. J., Cohen, D. D., Rhodes, D., Carling, C., & Kiely, J. (2021). Drop jump neuromuscular performance qualities associated with maximal horizontal deceleration ability in team sport athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 22(7), 1005-1016. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1930195

Harper, D. J., Cohen, D. D., Carling, C., & Kiely, J. (2020). Can countermovement jump neuromuscular performance qualities differentiate maximal horizontal deceleration ability in team sport athletes? Sports, 8(6), 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8060076

Harper, D. J., Morin, J.-B., Carling, C., & Kiely, J. (2020). Measuring maximal horizontal deceleration ability using radar technology: Reliability and sensitivity of kinematic and kinetic variables. Sports Biomechanics, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2020.1792968

Harper, D. J., Jordan, A. R., & Kiely, J. (2021). Relationships between eccentric and concentric knee strength capacities and maximal linear deceleration ability in male academy soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 35(2), 465-472. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002739

Harper, D. J., & Kiely, J. (2018). Damaging nature of decelerations: Do we adequately prepare players? BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000379

Harper, D. J., McBurnie, A. J., Santos, T. D., Eriksrud, O., Evans, M., Cohen, D. D., Rhodes, D., Carling, C., & Kiely, J. (2022). Biomechanical and neuromuscular performance requirements of Horizontal Deceleration: A review with implications for random intermittent multi-directional sports. Sports Medicine, 52(10), 2321-2354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-022-01693-0

Harper, D. J., Morin, J.-B., Carling, C., & Kiely, J. (2020). Measuring maximal horizontal deceleration ability using radar technology: Reliability and sensitivity of kinematic and kinetic variables. Sports Biomechanics, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2020.1792968

Havens, K. L., & Sigward, S. M. (2015). Whole body mechanics differ among running and cutting maneuvers in skilled athletes. Gait & Posture, 42(3), 240-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.07.022

Hewit, J., Cronin, J., Button, C., & Hume, P. (2011). Understanding deceleration in Sport. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 33(1), 47-52. https://doi.org/10.1519/ssc.0b013e3181fbd62c

Ireland, M. L. (2002). The female ACL: why is it more prone to injury? Orthopedic Clinics of North America, 33(4), 637-651. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0030-5898(02)00028-7

Jian, Y., Winter, D. A., Ishac, M. G., & Gilchrist, L. (1993). Trajectory of the body cog and cop during initiation and termination of gait. Gait & Posture, 1(1), 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/0966-6362(93)90038-3

Jones, P. A., Dos'Santos, T., McMahon, J. J., & Graham-Smith, P. (2022). Contribution of Eccentric Strength to Cutting Performance in Female Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 36(2), 525-533. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003433

Jones, P., Thomas, C., Dos'Santos, T., McMahon, J., & Graham-Smith, P. (2017). The role of eccentric strength in 180° turns in female soccer players. Sports, 5(2), 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5020042

Loturco, I., A. Pereira, L., T. Freitas, T., E. Alcaraz, P., Zanetti, V., Bishop, C., & Jeffreys, I. (2019). Maximum acceleration performance of professional soccer players in Linear Sprints: Is there a direct connection with change-of-direction ability? PLOS ONE, 14(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216806

Newans, T., Bellinger, P., Dodd, K., & Minahan, C. (2019). Modelling the acceleration and deceleration profile of elite-level soccer players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(05), 331-335. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0853-7676

Nimphius, S., Callaghan, S. J., Spiteri, T., & Lockie, R. G. (2016). Change of direction deficit: A more isolated measure of change of direction performance than total 505 time. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(11), 3024-3032. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001421

Oliva-Lozano, J. M., Fortes, V., Krustrup, P., & Muyor, J. M. (2020). Acceleration and sprint profiles of professional male football players in relation to playing position. PLOS ONE, 15(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236959

Philipp, N., Cabarkapa, D., Eserhaut, D., Cabarkapa, D., & Fry, A. (2022). Countermovement Jump Force-time metrics and maximal horizontal deceleration performance in professional male basketball players. Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 2(2022), 11-27. https://doi.org/10.37393/jass.2022.02.2

Simperingham, K. D., Cronin, J. B., & Ross, A. (2016). Advances in sprint acceleration profiling for field-based team-sport athletes: Utility, reliability, validity and limitations. Sports Medicine, 46(11), 1619-1645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0508-y

Spiteri, T., Nimphius, S., Hart, N. H., Specos, C., Sheppard, J. M., & Newton, R. U. (2014). Contribution of strength characteristics to change of direction and agility performance in female basketball athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(9), 2415-2423. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000547

Young, W. (1995). Laboratory strength assessment of athletes. New studies in athletics, 10, 89-89.

Effect of sprint approach velocity and distance on deceleration performance in NCAA Division I female softball athletes

Downloads

Statistics

Statistics RUA

Published

21-02-2023

How to Cite

Philipp, N. M., Blackburn, S. D., Cabarkapa, D., & Fry, A. C. (2023). Effect of Sprint Approach Velocity and Distance on Deceleration Performance in NCAA Division I Female Softball Players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, In Press. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2023.183.03

Issue

Section

Biomechanics

Most read articles by the same author(s)